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Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief: Horowitz, Michal

Editorial Board: Das, Kusal K. / Epstein, Yoram / S. Gershon MD, Elliot / Kodesh , Einat / Kohen, Ron / Lichtstein, David / Maloyan, Alina / Mechoulam, Raphael / Roth, Joachim / Schneider, Suzanne / Shohami, Esther / Sohmer, Haim / Yoshikawa, Toshikazu / Tam, Joseph


CiteScore 2016: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.349
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.495

Online
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2191-0286
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Volume 26, Issue 4

Issues

Identification and evaluation of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in hospitalized geriatric patients using Beers criteria

Pattani Danisha
  • Department of Pharmacy Practice, Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Poonthanam, Khizhattur, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Chandrasekhar Dilip
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Pharmacy Practice, Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Poonthanam, Khizhattur, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Panakkal Linu Mohan
  • Department of Pharmacy Practice, Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Poonthanam, Khizhattur, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Cholamugath Shinu
  • Department of Pharmacy Practice, Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Poonthanam, Khizhattur, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jaffer Chalil Parambil
  • Department of General Medicine, Kims Alshifa Superspeciality Hospital, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Muhammed Sajid
Published Online: 2015-05-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2014-0054

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in geriatric patients using Beers criteria and also to identify adverse drug events (ADEs) due to PIMs and various drug-drug interactions.

Methods: The medications in the prescriptions of patients above 60 years of age, their dosage regimen respective of their diagnosis were analyzed. Each medication was then checked with Beers list tables, and any medication if mentioned in the Beers list, was noted along with its strength of recommendation and quality of evidence. Any adverse drug event (ADE) due to PIM was identified. Causality of the events was assessed by Naranjo’s Scale. The number of drug-drug interactions per prescription and the severity of each interaction were also analyzed. The collected data from 200 subjects were subjected to statistical treatments using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16.0 for WINDOWS.

Results: Based on the Beers criteria 2012, 106 out of 200 (53%) prescriptions had at least one PIM prescribed. A sum of 1690 medications was prescribed as a whole for the entire study subjects. Among which, 134 PIMs were identified. Most commonly prescribed PIMs were benzodiazepines (39, 19.5%), followed by sliding scale use of insulin (31, 15.5%), and prazosin at a rate of 11.5% (23). A total of 10 ADEs were identified during the study. The average number of drug interactions observed among total samples was found to be 3.0±6.0 with 0±5.0 serious interactions, 2±4.0 significant interactions requiring close monitoring, and 0±6.0 minor interactions.

Conclusions: The study shows high prevalence of prescribing PIMs in hospitalized elderly patients; PIM also caused incidence of ADEs; and serious drug-drug interactions were scarce among the patients.

Keywords: adverse drug events; Beers criteria; elderly; potentially inappropriate medications

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About the article

Corresponding author: Dr. Chandrasekhar Dilip, Prof and Head, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Al Shifa college of Pharmacy, Poonthavanam P.0, Perinthalmanna, Kerala 679325, India, E-mail:


Received: 2014-04-30

Accepted: 2015-02-12

Published Online: 2015-05-07

Published in Print: 2015-07-01


Citation Information: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 403–410, ISSN (Online) 2191-0286, ISSN (Print) 0792-6855, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2014-0054.

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