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Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief: Horowitz, Michal

Editorial Board: Das, Kusal K. / Epstein, Yoram / S. Gershon MD, Elliot / Kodesh , Einat / Kohen, Ron / Lichtstein, David / Maloyan, Alina / Mechoulam, Raphael / Roth, Joachim / Schneider, Suzanne / Shohami, Esther / Sohmer, Haim / Yoshikawa, Toshikazu / Tam, Joseph

CiteScore 2016: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.349
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.495

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Volume 27, Issue 5


Effect of protocatechuic acid on lipid profile and DNA damage in D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats

Thangaiyan Radhiga
  • Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Arjunan Sundaresan
  • Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India
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/ Periyasamy Viswanathan
  • Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India
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/ Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India
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  • Other articles by this author:
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Published Online: 2016-05-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0135



Our aim in this study is to investigate the effect of protocatechuic acid (PCA) on lipid profile and DNA damage in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatotoxic rats.


Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of D-GalN in male Wistar rats. The activities of hepatic markers and levels of kidney function markers were determined. The plasma and tissue lipid levels were estimated. DNA damage was determined by COMET assay. Histopathological examination was also performed using portions of the liver and kidney tissues.


D-GalN-induced hepatotoxic rats showed increased in the activities of hepatic marker enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in serum. The levels of kidney function markers such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine increased in serum. Levels of lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), and phospholipids (PLs) in the plasma and tissues (liver and kidney) were significantly increased in D-GalN-induced rats. In plasma, levels of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) significantly increased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level decreased in D-GalN-induced rats. Furthermore, D-GalN-induced rats showed increased percentage of tail DNA and tail length and decreased percentage of head DNA. Oral administration of PCA (100 mg/ kg BW) for 20 days improved these levels when compared to D-GalN-induced rats. These biochemical changes were reflected on the attenuation and the structural alteration of the liver and kidney integrity.


The results of the study suggest that PCA has a potent hepatoprotective activity that may be linked to its antihyperlipidemic effect.

Keywords: D-galactosamine; DNA damage; hepatic marker enzymes; histopathology; lipids; protocatechuic acid


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About the article

Corresponding author: Dr. Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi, MSc, MPhil, PhD, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu 608002, India, Phone: +91-4144-239141, Fax: +91-4144-239141

Received: 2015-04-12

Accepted: 2016-04-12

Published Online: 2016-05-25

Published in Print: 2016-09-01

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 505–514, ISSN (Online) 2191-0286, ISSN (Print) 0792-6855, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0135.

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