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Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief: Horowitz, Michal

Editorial Board: Das, Kusal K. / Epstein, Yoram / S. Gershon MD, Elliot / Kodesh , Einat / Kohen, Ron / Lichtstein, David / Maloyan, Alina / Mechoulam, Raphael / Roth, Joachim / Schneider, Suzanne / Shohami, Esther / Sohmer, Haim / Yoshikawa, Toshikazu / Tam, Joseph

CiteScore 2016: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.349
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.495

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Volume 28, Issue 1


Methanol extract of Nymphaea lotus ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver injury in rats via inhibition of oxidative stress

Ifeoluwa T. Oyeyemi
  • Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Olubukola O. Akanni
  • Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Unit, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Oluwatosin A. Adaramoye
  • Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Unit, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
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/ Adekunle A. Bakare
  • Corresponding author
  • Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
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Published Online: 2016-11-08 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0029



Nymphaea lotus (NL) is an aquatic perennial plant used traditionally in the management of various liver diseases. In this study, the protective effect of methanol extract of NL against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated.


Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five rats each. Group I received corn oil (0.5 mL p.o.) and served as control, group II received CCl4 (1 mL/kg i.p., 1:3 in corn oil), group III received NL (200 mg/kg), and groups IV, V, and VI received CCl4+NL (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively) for 6 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, rats were bled and killed.


The activities of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and levels of total bilirubin (TB) in the serum, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) in the liver, and histopathology of the liver were determined using standard procedures. NL significantly (p<0.05) lowered the levels of ALT, AST, and TB and exhibited antioxidant potentials in rats exposed to CCl4 relative to the control values. Specifically, NL at 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) increased CCl4-induced decrease in hepatic GSH and GPx and also decreased the level of hepatic TBARS in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Histopathological findings revealed cellular infiltration and fibrosis in rats that received CCl4 only, which were ameliorated in rats that received NL+CCl4.


The data suggest that NL exhibited hepatoprotective effects in CCl4-intoxicated rats via antioxidative mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; hepatotoxicity; liver fibrosis; liver histopathology; Nymphaea lotus


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About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. Adekunle A. Bakare, Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Phone: +234-7032295419, E-mail:

Received: 2016-03-04

Accepted: 2016-08-05

Published Online: 2016-11-08

Published in Print: 2017-01-01

Author contributions: ITO, OAA, and AAB designed the work, ITO and OOA carried out the laboratory analysis and wrote the manuscript, ITO did the statistical analysis, and OAA and AAB proofread, corrected, and approved the manuscript. All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: This study was partly funded by the Alexander Von Humboldt Return Fellowship to AAB and the University of Ibadan Postgraduate School scholarship to ITO.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organizations played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 43–50, ISSN (Online) 2191-0286, ISSN (Print) 0792-6855, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0029.

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