Friedl KE, Evans RK, Moran DS. Stress fracture and military medical readiness: bridging basic and applied research. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:S609–22.Google Scholar
Finestone A, Milgrom C, Evans RK, Yanovich R, Constantini N, Moran DS. Overuse injuries in female infantry recruits during low intensity basic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:S630–5.Google Scholar
Hod N, Ashkenazi I, Levi Y, Fire G, Drori M, Cohen I, et al. Characteristics of skeletal stress fractures in female military recruits of the Israel defense forces on bone scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med 2006;31:742–9.Google Scholar
Moran DS, Evans RK, Hadad E. Imaging of lower extremity stress fracture injuries. Sports Med 2008;38:345–56.Google Scholar
Moran DS, Evans R, Arbel Y, Luria O, Hadid A, Yanovich R, et al. Physical and psychological stressors linked with stress fractures in recruit training. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2013;23:443–50.Google Scholar
Shaffer RA, Rauh MJ, Brodine SK, Trone DW, Macera CA. Predictors of stress fractures susceptibility in young female recruits. Am J Sports Med 2006;34:108–15.Google Scholar
Yanovich R, Evans RK, Israeli E, Constantini N, Epstein Y, Moran DS. Differences in physical fitness of males and females recruits in gender integrated army basic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:S654–9.Google Scholar
Lappe J, Cullen D, Haynatzki G, Recker R, Ahlf R, Thompson K. Calcium and vitamin d supplementation decreases incidence of stress fractures in female navy recruits. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:741–9.Google Scholar
Friedl KE, Knapik JJ, Häkkinen K, Baumgartner N, Groeller H, Taylor NA, et al. Perspectives on aerobic and strength influences on military physical readiness: report of an international military physiology roundtable. J Strength Cond Res 2015;29(Suppl 11):S10–23.Google Scholar
Milgrom C, Simkin A, Eldad A, Nyska M, Finestone A. Using bone’s adaptation ability to lower the incidence of stress fractures. Am J Sports Med 2000;28:245–51.Google Scholar
Armstrong DW, Rue JP, Wilckens JH, Frassica FJ. Stress fracture injury in young military men and women. Bone 2004;35:806–16.Google Scholar
Niemeyer P, Weinberg A, Schmitt H, Kreuz PC, Ewerbeck V, Kasten P. Stress fractures in adolescent competitive athletes with open physis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2006;14:771–7.Google Scholar
Frisch A, Croisier JL, Urhausen A, Seil R, Theisen D. Injuries, risk factors and prevention initiatives in youth sport. Brit Med Bull 2009;92:95–121.Google Scholar
Kang L, Belcher D, Hulstyn MJ. Stress fractures of the femoral shaft in women’s college lacrosse: a report of seven cases and a review of the literature. Br J Sports Med 2005;39:902–6.Google Scholar
Beck TJ, Ruff CB, Shaffer RA, Betsinger K, Trone DW, Brodine SK. Stress fracture in military recruits: gender differences in muscle and bone susceptibility factors. Bone 2000;27:437–44.Google Scholar
Moran DS, Israeli E, Evans RK, Yanovich R, Constantini N, Shabshin N, et al. Prediction model for stress fracture in young female recruits during basic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:S636–44.Google Scholar
Durnin JV, Rahaman MM. The assessment of the amount of fat in the human body from measurements of skinfold thickness. Br J Nutr 1967;21:681–9.Google Scholar
Zwas ST, Elkanovitch R, Frank G. Interpretation and classification of bone scitigraphic findings in stress fractures. I Nucl Med 1987;28:452–7.Google Scholar
Hadid A, Moran DS, Evans RK, Fuks Y, Schweitzer ME, Shabshin N. Tibial stress changes in new combat recruits for special forces: patterns and timing at MR imaging. Radiology 2014;273:483–90.Google Scholar
Warden SJ, Burr DB, Brukner PD. Stress fractures: pathophysiology, epidemiology, and risk factors. Curr Osteoporos Rep 2006;4:103–9.Google Scholar
Gam A, Goldstein L, Karmon Y, Mintser I, Grotto I, Guri A. Comparison of stress fractures of male and female recruits during basic training in the Israeli anti-aircraft forces. Mil Med 2005;170:710–12.Google Scholar
Altarac M, Gardner JW, Popovich RM, Potter R, Knapik JJ, Jones BH. Cigarette smoking and exercise-related injuries among young men and women. Am J Prev Med 2000;18:96–102.Google Scholar
Pope RP. Prevention of pelvic stress fractures in female army recruits. Mil Med 1999;164:370–3.Google Scholar
Jones BH, Knapik JJ. Physical training and exercise-related injuries. Surveillance, research and injury prevention in military populations. Sports Med 1999;27:111–25.Google Scholar
Knapik JJ, Darakjy S, Hauret KG, Canada S, Scott S, Rieger W, et al. Increasing the physical fitness of low-fit recruits before basic combat training: an evaluation of fitness, injuries, and training outcomes. Mil Med 2006;171:45–54.Google Scholar
Evans RK, Negus C, Antczak AJ, Yanovich R, Israeli E, Moran DS, et al. Sex differences in parameters of bone strength in new recruits: beyond bone density. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:S645–53.Google Scholar
Jepsen KJ, Evans R, Negus CH, Gagnier JJ, Centi A, Erlich T, et al. Variation in tibial functionality and fracture susceptibility in healthy, young adults arises from the acquisition of biologically distinct sets of traits. J Bone Mineral Res 2013;28:1290–300.Google Scholar
Evans RK, Antczak AJ, Lester M, Yanovich R, Israeli E, Moran DS. Effects of a four-month recruit training program on markers of bone metabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:S660–70.Google Scholar
Reynolds KL, Heckel HA, Witt CE, Martin JW, Pollard JA, Knapik JJ, et al. Cigarette smoking, physical fitness, and injuries in infantry soldiers. Am J Prev Med 1994;10:145–50.Google Scholar
Finestone AS, Milgrom C, Yanovich R, Evans R, Constantini N, Moran DS. Evaluation of the performance of females as light infantry soldiers. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:572953.Google Scholar
Kelly EW, Jonson SR, Cohen ME, Shaffer R. Stress fractures of the pelvis in female navy recruits: an analysis of possible mechanisms of injury. Mil Med 2000;165:142–6.Google Scholar
Winfield AC, Moore J, Bracker M, Johnson CW. Risk factors associated with stress reactions in female Marines. Mil Med 1997;162:698–702.Google Scholar
Knapik JJ, Cosio-Lima LM, Reynolds KL, Shumway RS. Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cadets. J Strength Cond Res 2015;29:1157–62.Google Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2017-02-21
Published in Print: 2017-05-01
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved its submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.