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Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief: Horowitz, Michal

Editorial Board: Das, Kusal K. / Epstein, Yoram / S. Gershon MD, Elliot / Kodesh , Einat / Kohen, Ron / Lichtstein, David / Maloyan, Alina / Mechoulam, Raphael / Roth, Joachim / Schneider, Suzanne / Shohami, Esther / Sohmer, Haim / Yoshikawa, Toshikazu / Tam, Joseph

CiteScore 2016: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.349
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.495

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Volume 28, Issue 3


Effect of cardiovascular and muscular endurance is not associated with stress fracture incidence in female military recruits: a 12-month follow up study

Mickey Scheinowitz
  • Combat Fitness Center, Ground Forces Command, Israel
  • Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ran Yanovich
  • Surgeon General’s Headquarters, Israel Defense Force, and Department of Military Medicine, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Heller Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Israel
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nurit Sharvit / Michal Arnon / Daniel S. Moran
  • Corresponding author
  • Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
  • Heller Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, 52621, Israel, Phone: + 972-3-5303564, Fax: + 972-3-7377002
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-02-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0098



Stress fracture (SF) is a common injury among military recruits, especially among women, during the army basic training (ABT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of health habits and physical activity before recruitment on the fitness level and the incidence of SF during the 4-month ABT.


We screened 226 female recruit volunteers (weight: 60.5±10 kg; height: 163±6 cm) from an integrated combat unit and 124 aged-matched female controls (weight: 57.0±8.3 kg, height 162±7 cm) from a non-combat unit. A self-report questionnaire on their habits pertaining to smoking, physical activity, and orthopedic injuries prior to recruitment were analyzed in relation to the incidences of SF during ABT.


Aerobic fitness was similar between the two groups. The overall incidence of SFs was 10.2%. Physical training prior to recruitment had no significant effect on the incidence of SF during ABT (11.7% vs. 9.6% in those who trained and did not train before recruitment, respectively) (Odds ratio, OR)=1.24, p=0.236). Nearly 42% of the female recruits smoked regularly, and the incidence of SFs among smokers was 10.5% compared with 9.9% among the non-smokers (OR=1.07, p=0.188). The overall incidence of SFs 12 months after recruitment was 1.78%. The use of contraceptive medication did not affect the incidence of SF: 10.0% among prior-trained vs. 6.4% in non-prior trained (p>0.05) recruits. SFs were not correlated to these variables at the end of the ABT program and 16 months after recruitment.


In the present female cohort, physical activity prior to recruitment had no protective effect against SF during or after ABT. The incidence of SFs during the 12-month period after ABT was negligible.

Keywords: army; basic training; contraception; female soldiers; physical activity; smoking


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About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. Daniel S. Moran, PhD, FACSM, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel

Received: 2016-08-09

Accepted: 2017-01-13

Published Online: 2017-02-21

Published in Print: 2017-05-01

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved its submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 219–224, ISSN (Online) 2191-0286, ISSN (Print) 0792-6855, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0098.

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