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Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief: Horowitz, Michal

Editorial Board: Das, Kusal K. / Epstein, Yoram / S. Gershon MD, Elliot / Kodesh , Einat / Kohen, Ron / Lichtstein, David / Maloyan, Alina / Mechoulam, Raphael / Roth, Joachim / Schneider, Suzanne / Shohami, Esther / Sohmer, Haim / Yoshikawa, Toshikazu / Tam, Joseph

CiteScore 2016: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.349
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.495

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Volume 28, Issue 5


Antidiarrheal and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract and its chloroform and pet ether fraction of Phrynium imbricatum (Roxb.) leaves in mice

Mohammed Munawar Hossain
  • Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Drug Discovery, GUSTO A Research Group, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir
  • Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Drug Discovery, GUSTO A Research Group, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Md. Abu Monsur Dinar / Md. Saiful Islam Arman / Md. Mominur Rahman
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Drug Discovery, GUSTO A Research Group, Chittagong, Bangladesh, Phone: +88-031-610085, 610308, 625230 ext. 160, Mobile: +01670738590
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ S.M. Zahid Hosen / Raju Dash / Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin
  • Drug Discovery, GUSTO A Research Group, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Department of Pharmacy, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Other articles by this author:
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Published Online: 2017-08-03 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0165



The objective of the study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract and its chloroform and pet ether fraction of Phrynium imbricatum (Roxb.) leaves in mice.


In the present study, the dried leaves of P. imbricatum were subjected to extraction with ethanol, and then it was fractioned by chloroform and pet ether solvent. Antidiarrheal effects were tested by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal transit test. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by using the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking test.


The standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.001) inhibitory activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea, in which all the examined treatments decreased the frequency of defecation and were found to possess an anti-castor oil-induced enteropooling effect in mice by reducing both weight and volume of intestinal content significantly, and reducing the propulsive movement in castor oil-induced gastrointestinal transit using charcoal meal in mice. The results showed that the ethanol extract of P. imbricatum leaves has significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity, and among its two different fractions, the pet ether fraction significantly inhibited the abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and the licking times in formalin test at both phases.


These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source for the development of a new antinociceptive drug and slightly suitable for diarrhea, as it exhibited lower activity. Our observations resemble previously published data on P. imbricatum leaves.

Keywords: acetic acid; antidiarrheal; antinociceptive; castor oil; intestinal transit; Phrynium imbricatum


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About the article

Received: 2015-12-26

Accepted: 2017-04-01

Published Online: 2017-08-03

Published in Print: 2017-09-26

Author contributions: MMH and MSHK collected the plant leaves and prepared the extract and fractions. MMH and MSHK also carried out the study design, performed the experiments, collected and interpreted the data, prepared the manuscript, and performed statistical analysis. MSHK wrote the first draft of the manuscript. MAMD, MSIA, SMZH, RD, and MMNU helped in the experiments, data collection, and literature search. The intermodel relationship idea was uniquely given by MSHK. MMR supervised the study design and data interpretation. All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of the submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 483–492, ISSN (Online) 2191-0286, ISSN (Print) 0792-6855, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0165.

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