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Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief: Horowitz, Michal

Editorial Board: Das, Kusal K. / Epstein, Yoram / S. Gershon MD, Elliot / Kodesh , Einat / Kohen, Ron / Lichtstein, David / Maloyan, Alina / Mechoulam, Raphael / Roth, Joachim / Schneider, Suzanne / Shohami, Esther / Sohmer, Haim / Yoshikawa, Toshikazu / Tam, Joseph


CiteScore 2016: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.349
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.495

Online
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2191-0286
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Volume 28, Issue 2

Issues

The effects of smoking and nicotine ingestion on exercise heat tolerance

Amit Druyan / Danit Atias / Itay Ketko
  • Heller Institute of Medical Research, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
  • The IDF Warrior Health Research Institute, Ramat Gan, Israel
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Yoav Cohen-Sivan / Yuval Heled
Published Online: 2016-11-10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0065

Abstract

Background:

Smoking has a thermogenic effect and is associated with low physical performance. Nevertheless, a direct, quantitative effect of acute smoking on exercise heat tolerance has not been reported.

Methods:

Sixteen healthy young male volunteers, eight cigarette smokers, and eight non-smokers participated in the study. All subjects performed a maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2max) and a standardized heat tolerance test (HTT) after at least 12 h without smoking under the following conditions: no nicotine exposure, 10 min after nicotine exposure (2 mg nicotine lozenge), and 10 min after smoking two cigarettes (0.8 mg nicotine in each cigarette, smokers only).

Results:

There was no significant effect of nicotine exposure on physiological performance and heat tolerance in the non-smokers group. In the smokers group, cigarette smoking, but not nicotine ingestion, resulted with higher heart rate (by 9±9 bpm) at the end of the HTT (p<0.05). Moreover, both smoking and nicotine ingestion increased smokers’ rectal temperature at the end of the HTT (by 0.24±0.16°C and 0.21±0.26°C, respectively, p<0.05) and were associated with higher sweat rate during the HTT (by 0.08±0.07 g/h and 0.06±0.08 g/h, respectively, p<0.05). Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis also revealed a higher LF/HF (low frequency/high frequency) ratio after exposure to nicotine and smoking in the smokers group compared with no exposure (2.13±2.57 and 2.48±2.76, respectively, p<0.05), indicating a higher sympathetic tone.

Conclusions:

According to this preliminary study, cigarette smoking and nicotine ingestion increase the physiological strain during a HTT in smokers. Acute smoking may, therefore, increase heat intolerance and the risk to heat injuries.

Keywords: heat tolerance; heat tolerance test (HTT); nicotine; physical performance; smoking

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About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. Yuval Heled, PhD, Heller Institute of Medical Research, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, 52621, Israel, Phone: +972-3-5303564, Fax: +972-3-7377002


Received: 2016-04-27

Accepted: 2016-08-08

Published Online: 2016-11-10

Published in Print: 2017-03-01


Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: This study was funded by the Israeli MOD.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


Citation Information: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 167–170, ISSN (Online) 2191-0286, ISSN (Print) 0792-6855, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0065.

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