Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

70% off for SBL-members!

Journal of the Bible and its Reception

Managing Editor: Kraemer, David / Marsengill, Katherine

Ed. by Black, Fiona C. / Oekland, Jorunn / MacDonald, Nathan / Ocker, Christopher

Together with Strawbridge, Jennifer R.

See all formats and pricing
More options …

Stalin’s Biblical Hermeneutics: From 2 Thessalonians 3 to Acts 4

Roland Boer
  • Corresponding author
  • Distinguished Overseas Research Professor, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China
  • Research Professor, University of Newcastle Australia, Newcastle, Australia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-06-23 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbr-2017-2003


This article concerns the creative reinterpretation of two biblical texts in the thought of Joseph Stalin: 2 Thessalonians 3:10 and Acts 4:32 and 35. Indeed, “anyone unwilling to work should not eat” became the hermeneutical frame through which the text from Acts 4, “everything they owned was held in common (…) They laid it at the apostles’ feet, and it was distributed to each as any had need,” was reinterpreted. Already from 1917, the text of 2 Thessalonians was used by Lenin to define what would soon be called socialism, in distinction from communism (the distinction was itself a Bolshevik innovation). Stalin would make much greater use of the text, extending the sense of those not working – the idle capitalists and bourgeoisie – to those who lagged behind in the project of creating socialism. Further, it became the interpretive key for reworking the communist slogan, “from each according to ability, to each according to need” (itself a gloss on Acts 4) into a slogan for socialism, “from each according to ability, to each according to work.” These two forms of the slogan became the means to distinguish socialism from communism. The result of this process of biblical reinterpretation was the appearance of both biblical texts – one quoted and one glossed – in the “Stalin” Constitution of 1936. Throughout I seek to understand Stalin’s thought on the basis of his writings, without taking sides in the perpetual polarization over his legacy.

Keywords: Stalin; Bible; Soviet Constitution; 2 Thessalonians 3:10; Acts 4:32-35

Works Cited

  • Akhminov, H. 1970. “Stalin: Monster or Functionary?” Bulletin of the Institute of the Study for the History and Culture of the USSR 17 (2): 7–20.Google Scholar

  • Alfeyev, Hilarion. 2008. “Eschatology,” In The Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology, edited by Mary Cunningham and Elizabeth Theokritoff, 107–120. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Allworth, Edward, ed. 1980. Ethnic Russia in the USSR: the Dilemma of Dominance. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar

  • Augustine. 1886. “On the Work of Monks,” In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 1st series, edited by Philip Schaff, Edinburgh: T&T Clark.Google Scholar

  • Aune, David. 1989. “Trouble in Thessalonica: An Exegetical Study of I Thess 4.9–12, 5.12–14 and II Thess 6.6–15 in Light of First-Century Social Conditions.” Th.M, Regent College, Vancouver.Google Scholar

  • Barclay, John. 1993. “Conflict in Thessalonica.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 55: 512–530.Google Scholar

  • Barrett, Charles Kingsley. 1994. A Criticial and Exegetical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.Google Scholar

  • Bartlett, Joseph. 2012. “Bourgeois Right and the Limits of First Phase Communism in the Rhetoric of 2 Thessalonians 3:6–15.” The Bible and Critical Theory 8 (2): 36–56.Google Scholar

  • Bengel, Johann Albrecht. 1971 [1742]. New Testament Word Studies, trans. Charlton Lewis and Marvin Vincent. Grand Rapids: Kregel.Google Scholar

  • Berman, Marshall. 2001. Adventures in Marxism. London: Verso.Google Scholar

  • Blanc, Louis. 1851. Plus de Girondins. Paris: Charles Joubert.Google Scholar

  • Boer, Roland. 2014. In The Vale of Tears: On Marxism and Theology V. Leiden and Chicago: Brill and Haymarket.Google Scholar

  • Boer, Roland. 2016 “A Materialist Doctrine of Good and Evil: Stalin’s Revision of Marxist Anthropology.” Crisis and Critique 3.1: 109–154.Google Scholar

  • Bowie, Norman. 1971. Towards a New Theory of Distributive Justice. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar

  • Brandenburger, David, and A. M. Dubrovsky. 1998. ‘“The People Need a Tsar’: The Emergence of National Bolshevism as Stalinist Ideology, 1931–1941.” Europe-Asia Studies 5: 873–892.Google Scholar

  • Burke, Trevor. 2003. Family Matters: A Socio-Historical Study of Kinship Metaphors in 1 Thessalonians. London: T&T Clark.Google Scholar

  • Burnham, James. 1945. “Lenin’s Heir.” Partisan Review 12: 61–72.Google Scholar

  • Calvin, John. 1851. Commentaries on the Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Philippians, Colossians, and Thessalonians, trans. William Pringle. Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society.Google Scholar

  • Chalidze, Valerii. 1981. Pobeditel’ Kommunizma. Mysli o Staline, sotsializme i Rossii. New York: Chalidze Publications.Google Scholar

  • Chrysostom, John. 1889. “Homilies on Thessalonians.” In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 1st series, edited by Philip Schaff. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.Google Scholar

  • Cohen, Stephen. 1977. “Bolshevism and Stalinism: New Reflections on an Old Problem.” Dissent 24: 190–205.Google Scholar

  • Cohen, Stephen. 1985. Rethinking the Soviet Experience: Politics and History since 1917. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Conzelmann, Hans. 1982 [1961]. The Theology of St. Luke, trans. Geoffrey Buswell. London: SCM.Google Scholar

  • Daniels, Robert Vincent, ed. 1993a. A Documentary History of Communism in Russia: From Lenin to Gorbachev. Burlington: University of Vermont Press.Google Scholar

  • Daniels, Robert Vincent, ed. 1993b. “Was Stalin Really a Communist?” Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 20 (2–3): 169–175.Google Scholar

  • Deutscher, Isaac. 1967 [1949]. Stalin: A Political Biography. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Dubrovin, Cyrus. 2015. Bibleĭskie frazeologizmy v russkoĭ i evropeĭskoĭ kul’tur. Mosocw: Flinta-Nauka.Google Scholar

  • Esler, Philip. 1987. Community and Gospel in Luke-Acts: The Social and Political Motivations of Lucan Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Filtzer, Donald. 1986. Soviet Workers and Stalinist Industrialization: The Formation of Modern Soviet Production Relations, 1928–1941. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar

  • Filtzer, Donald. 2004. Soviet Workers and Late Stalinism: Labour and the Restoration of the Stalinist System After World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 2000. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Gaventa, Beverly Roberts. 1998. First and Second Thessalonians. Louisville: John Knox.Google Scholar

  • Golubović, Zagora. 1981. “Stalinism and Socialism.” Praxis International 1 (2):126–136.Google Scholar

  • Guins, George C. 1954. Soviet Law and Soviet Society. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar

  • Gusev, Antonina Vitalievna. 2003. “‘Kratkiĭ kurs istorii VKP(b)’: istoriia sozdaniia i vozdeĭstvie na obshchestvennoe soznanie.” PhD Thesis. Historical Sciences, Moscow State University, Moscow.Google Scholar

  • Holladay, Carl. 2005. A Critical Introduction to the New Testament. Nashville: Abingdon.Google Scholar

  • Hus, John. 1953 [1413]. “On Simony,” In Advocates of Reform, edited by Matthew Spinka. London: SCMGoogle Scholar

  • Jewett, Robert. 1993. “Tenement Churches and Communal Meals in the Early Church: The Implications of a Form-Critical Analysis of 2 Thessalonians 3:10.” Biblical Research 38: 23–43.Google Scholar

  • Kautsky, Karl. 1976 [1895–1897]. Vorläufer des neueren Sozialismus I: Kommunistische Bewegungen im Mittelalter. Berlin: Dietz.Google Scholar

  • Kautsky, Karl. 1908a [2007]. Foundations of Christianity, trans. H.F. Mins. London: Socialist Resistance.Google Scholar

  • Kautsky, Karl. 1908b [1977]. Der Ursprung des Christentums: Eine historische Untersuchung. Stuttgart: Dietz.Google Scholar

  • Koester, Helmut. 2000. Introduction to the New Testament, Volume II: History and Literature of Early Christianity. 2nd ed. New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Kolakowski, Leszek. 1978. Main Currents of Marxism: Its Origins, Growth and Dissolution. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Krausz, Tamás. 2005. “‘Stalin’s Socialism’ – Today’s Debates on Socialism: Theory, History, Politics.” Contemporary Politics 11 (4): 235–257.Google Scholar

  • Lenin, V. I. 1917a [1964]. “The State and Revolution’. In Collected Works, Vol. 25: 385–497. Moscow: Progress Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Lenin, V. I. 1917b [1969]. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia. Uchenie marksizma o gosudarstve i zadachi proletariata v revoliutsii. Аvgust–sentiabr’ 1917 g.; ranee 17 dekabria 1918 g”. In Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 33: 1–120. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Lenin, V. I. 1917c [1964]. “The Tasks of the Proletariat in Our Revolution: Draft Platform for the Proletarian Party”. In Collected Works, Vol. 24: 55–92. Moscow: Progress Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Lenin, V. I. 1917d [1969]. “Zadachi proletariata v nasheĭ revoliutsii (Proekt platformy proletarskoĭ partii), 10 (23) aprelia 1917 g”. In Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 31: 149–186. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Lenin, V. I. 1918a [1965]. “On the Famine: A Letter to the Workers of Petrograd, 22 May, 1918”. In Collected Works, Vol. 27: 391–398. Moscow: Progress Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Lenin, V. I. 1918b [1969]. “O golode (pis’mo k piterskim rabochim)”. In Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 36: 357–364. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Lenin, V. I. 1919a [1965]. “Report on Subbotniks Delivered to a Moscow City Conference of the R.C.P. (B.), December 20, 1919’. In Collected Works, Vol. 30: 283–288. Moscow: Progress Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Lenin, V. I. 1919b [1974]. “Doklad o subbotnikakh na Moskovskoĭ obshchegorodskoĭ konferentsii RKP(b), 20 dekabria”. In Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 40: 32–38. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Leonhard, Wolfgang. Three Faces of Marxism: The Political Concepts of Soviet Ideology, Maoism, and Humanist Marxism, trans. Ewald Osers. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974.Google Scholar

  • Lieuw, Tat-siong Benny. 1999a. “Boundary and Might: Colonial Mimicry in Mark’s Gospel.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 73: 7–31.Google Scholar

  • Lieuw, Tat-siong Benny. 1999b. Politics of Parousia: Reading Mark Inter(con)textually. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar

  • Lowenthal, Richard. 1960. “Stalin and Ideology: The Revenge of the Superstructure.” Survey 33: 31–37.Google Scholar

  • Luxemburg, Rosa. 1905a [1970]. “Socialism and the Churches”. In Rosa Luxemburg Speaks, edited by Mary-Alice Waters, 131–152. New York: Pathfinder Press.Google Scholar

  • Luxemburg, Rosa. 1905b [1982]. Kirche und Sozialismus. Frankfurt am Main: Stimme-Verlag.Google Scholar

  • Lynch, Allen. 1993. “Comments on Robert V. Daniels’s Paper, “Was Stalin Really a Communist?’” Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 20 (2–3): 177–182.Google Scholar

  • Malherbe, Abraham. 1987. Paul and the Thessalonians: The Philosophic Tradition of Pastoral Care. Philadelphia: Fortress.Google Scholar

  • Marguerat, Daniel. 1996. The First Christian Historian: Writing the “Acts of the Apostles’, trans. Ken McKinney, Gregory Laughery and Richard Bauckham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Martin, Terry. 2001. The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar

  • Marx, Karl. 1875a [1989]. “Critique of the Gotha Programme’. In Marx and Engels Collected Works, Vol. 24: 75–99. Moscow: Progress Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Marx, Karl. 1875b [1985]. “Kritik des Gothaer Programms’. In Marx Engels Gesamtausgabe, Vol. I. 25: 3–25. Berlin: Dietz.Google Scholar

  • Mawdsley, Ewen. 2003. The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union 1929–1953. 2nd ed. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar

  • Menken, Maarten. 1994. 2 Thessalonians, New Readings. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Meyer, Alfred. 1981. “On Greatness.” Soviet Union 8 (1): 18–24.Google Scholar

  • Moore, Stephen. 2006. Empire and Apocalypse: Postcolonialism and the New Testament. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix.Google Scholar

  • Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome. 1996. Paul: A Critical Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Narayanswamy, Ramnath. 1986. “Utopia and Determinism in Marx, Lenin and Stalin – III.” China Report 22 (4): 473–483.Google Scholar

  • Nicholl, Colin. 2004. From Hope to Despair in Thessalonica: Situating 1 and 2 Thessalonians. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Nove, Alec. 1962. “Was Stalin Really Necessary?” Encounter 18 (4): 86–92.Google Scholar

  • Rees, E. A. 1998. “Stalin and Russian Nationalism,” In Russian Nationalism Past and Present, edited by Geoffrey Hosking and Robert Service, 77–106. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar

  • Roberts, Alexander, and James Donaldson, eds. 1867–1873. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. 10 vols. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.Google Scholar

  • RSFSR 1918a. Constitution of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. Lewisburg: Bucknell University.Google Scholar

  • RSFSR 1918b. Konstitutsiia (osnovnoĭ zakon) Rossiĭskoĭ sotsialisticheskoĭ Federativnoĭ sovetskoĭ respubliki Priniata v vserossiĭskim s”ezdom sovetov V zasedanii ot 10 iiulia 1918 goda. Leningrad.Google Scholar

  • Russell, R. 1988. “The Idle in 2 Thess 3:6–12: An Eschatological or a Social Problem?” New Testament Studies 34:110–113.Google Scholar

  • Shternshis, Anna. 2006. Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar

  • Siegelbaum, Lewis, and Andrei Sokolov. 2000. Stalinism as a Way of Life: A Narrative in Documents, trans. Thomas Hoisington and Steven Shabad. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1920a [1953]. “Congress of the Peoples of the Terek Region, November 17, 1920”. In Works, Vol. 4: 412–420. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1920b [1947]. “S”ezd narodov Terskoĭ oblasti 17 noiabria 1920 g”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 4: 399–407. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel´stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1924a [1953]. “The Foundations of Leninism: Lectures Delivered at the Sverdlov University”. In Works, Vol. 6: 71–196. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1924b [1947]. “Ob osnovakh leninizma: Lektsii, chitannye v Sverdlovskom universitete”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 6: 69–188. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel´stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1927a [1954]. “Interview with the First American Labour Delegation, September 9, 1927”. In Works, Vol. 10: 97–153. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1927b [1949]. “Beseda s pervoĭ amerikanskoĭ rabocheĭ delegatsieĭ, 9 sentiabria 1927 g”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 10: 92–148. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel´stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1931a [1954]. “Talk with the German Author Emil Ludwig, December 13, 1931”. In Works, Vol. 13: 106–125. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1931b [1951]. “Beseda s nemetskim pisatelem Ėmilem Liudvigom, 13 dekabria 1931 g”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 13: 104–123. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel´stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1933a [1954]. “Speech Delivered at the First All-Union Congress of Collective-Farm Shock Brigaders, February 19, 1933”. In Works, Vol. 13: 242–263. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1933b [1951]. “Rech′ na Pervom Vsesoiuznom s”ezde kolkhoznikov-udarnikov, 19 fevralia 1933 g”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 13: 236–256. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel´stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1934a [1954]. “Report to the Seventeenth Party Congress on the Work of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U.(B.), January 26, 1934”. In Works, Vol. 13: 288–388. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1934b [1951]. “Otchetnyĭ doklad XVII s”ezdu partii o rabote TSK VKP(b), 26 ianvaria 1934 g”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 13: 282–379. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel´stvo politicheskoi literatury.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1935a [1978]. “Address to the Graduates from the Red Army Academies (Delivered in the Kremlin, May 4, 1935)”. In Works, Vol. 14: 71–79. London: Red Star Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1935b [1997]. “Rech’ v Kremlevskom dvortse na vypuske akademikov Krasnoĭ Аrmii, 4 maia 1935 goda”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 14: 58–63. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo ‘Pisatel’.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1935c [1978]. “Speech at the First All-Union Conference of Stakhanovites, 17 November 1935”. In Works, Vol. 14: 89–110. London: Red Star Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1935d [1997]. “Rech′ na Pervom Vsesoiuznom soveshchanii stakhanovtsev, 17 noiabria 1935 goda”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 14: 79–92. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo ‘Pisatel’’.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1936a [1978]. “Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, With amendments adopted by the First, Second, Third, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Kremlin, Moscow, December 5, 1936”. In Works, Vol. 14: 199–239. London: Red Star Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1936b [2015]. Konstitutsiia (osnovnoĭ zakon) soiuza sovetskikh sotsialisticheskikh respublik (utverzhdena postanovleniem chrezvychaĭnogo VIII s”ezda sovetov soiuza sovetskikh sotsialisticheskikh respublik ot 5 dekabria 1936 g.). Moscow: Garant.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1936c [1978]. “Interview Between J. Stalin and Roy Howard”. In Works, Vol. 14: 133–147. London: Red Star Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1936d [1997]. “Beseda s predsedatelem amerikanskogo gazetnogo ob”edineniia “Skripps-Govard N’iuspeĭpers”gospodinom Roĭ Govardom, 1 marta 1936 goda”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 14: 103–112. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo ‘Pisatel’’.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1936e [1978]. “On the Draft Constitution of the USSR: Report delivered at the Extraordinary Eighth Congress of Soviets of the USSR, November 25, 1936”. In Works, Vol. 14: 151–197. London: Red Star Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1936f [1997]. ‘O proekte konstitutsii soiuza SSR: Doklad na chrezvychaĭnom VIII vsesoiuznom s”ezde sovetov, 25 noiabria 1936 goda”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 14: 119–147. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo ‘Pisatel’’.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1938a [1939]. History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks): Short Course. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1938b [1946]. Istoriia Vsesoiuznoĭ Kommunisticheskoĭ Partii (Bolshevikov): Kratkiĭ kurs. Moscow: OGIZ Gospolitizdat.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1939a [1978]. “Report on the Work of the Central Committee to the Eighteenth Congress of the C.P.S.U.(B.) (Delivered March 10, 1939)”. In Works, Vol. 14: 355–429. London: Red Star Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1939b [1997]. “Otchetnyĭ doklad na XVIII s”ezde partii o rabote TSK VKP(b), 10 marta 1939 goda”. In Sochineniia, Vol. 14: 290–341. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo ‘Pisatel’’.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1951–1952a [1986]. “Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR.” Works, Vol. 16: 222–296. London: Red Star Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalin, I. V. 1951–1952b [1997]. “Ėkonomicheskie problemy sotsializma v SSSR.” Sochineniia, Vol. 16: 154–223. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo ‘Pisatel’’.Google Scholar

  • Talbert, Charles. 2005. Reading Acts: A Literary and Theological Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles. Revised edn. Macon: Smyth and Helwys.Google Scholar

  • Thatcher, Margaret. 1988. “Speech to General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.” Accessed January 22, 2016. http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/107246. See also: http://news.stv.tv/scotland/220596-margaret-thatcher-addressed-the-general-assembly-of-the-church-of-scotland.

  • Thiselton, Anthony. 2011. 1 & 2 Thessalonians Through the Centuries. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Trotsky, Leon. 1937 [1972]. The Revolution Betrayed: What Is the Soviet Union and Where Is It Going? New York: Pathfinder.Google Scholar

  • Tucker, Robert C. 1990. Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1928–1941. New York: Norton.Google Scholar

  • Van Ree, Erik. 1998. “Socialism in One Country: A Reassessment”. Studies in East European Thought 50 (2): 72–117.Google Scholar

  • Van Ree, Erik. 2005. “Stalin as Marxist: The Western Roots of Stalin’s Russification of Marxism,” In Stalin: A New History, edited by Sarah Davies and James Harris, 159–180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Von Laue, Theodore. 1981. “Stalin Among the Moral and Political Imperatives, or How to Judge Stalin?” Soviet Union 8 (1): 1–17.Google Scholar

  • Von Laue, Theodore. 1983. “Stalin in Focus.” Slavic Review 42 (3): 373–389.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Vvedensky, Aleksandr Ivanovich. 1925 [1985]. “Sodoklad A. I. Vvedensky”. In Religia i prosveshchenie, edited by V. N. Kuznetsova, 186–193. Moscow: Sovetskaia Rossiia.Google Scholar

  • Walicki, Andrzej. 1995. Marxism and the Leap to the Kingdom of Freedom: The Rise and Fall of the Communist Utopia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Weaver, Dorothy Jean. 2007. “2 Thessalonians 3:6–15.” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 61 (4): 426–428.Google Scholar

  • Weber, Max. 1904 [1992]. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. Talcott Parsons. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Wetter, Gustav. 1958. Der dialektische Materialismus. Seine Geschichte und sein System in der Sowjetunion. Vierte, bearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage edn. Vienna: Herder.Google Scholar

  • Wilson-Reitz, Megan, and Sheila McGinn. 2014. “2 Thessalonians vs. the Ataktoi: A Pauline Critique of White-Collar Welfare,” In By Bread Alone: The Bible through the Eyes of the Hungry, edited by Sheila McGinn, Lai Ling Elizabeth Ngan and Ahida Calderón Pilarski Pilarski, 185–208. Minneapolis: Fortress.Google Scholar

  • Winter, Bruce. 1989. “If a Man Does Not Wish to Work.” Tyndale Bulletin 40: 303–315.Google Scholar

  • Winter, Bruce. 1994. Seek the Welfare of the City: Christians as Benefactors and Citizens. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2017-06-23

Published in Print: 2017-04-25

Citation Information: Journal of the Bible and its Reception, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 71–89, ISSN (Online) 2329-4434, ISSN (Print) 2329-440X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbr-2017-2003.

Export Citation

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Luc Bovens and Adrien Lutz
History of Political Economy, 2019, Volume 51, Number 2, Page 237

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in