Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Lui, Edmund

Ed. by Ko, Robert / Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin / Saunders, Paul / Suntres, PH. D., Zacharias

4 Issues per year


SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.401
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.429
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.255

Online
ISSN
1553-3840
See all formats and pricing

Using a standardized Viniyoga protocol for lung cancer survivors: a pilot study examining effects on breathing ease

Judith M. Fouladbakhsh
  • Corresponding author
  • Wayne State University, College of Nursing, Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • Email:
/ Jean E. Davis
  • Wayne State University, College of Nursing, Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • Email:
/ Hossein N. Yarandi
  • Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
  • Email:
Published Online: 2013-06-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2012-0013

Abstract

Although lung cancer is perceived as a dire diagnosis, increases in the 5-year survival rate of individuals with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been reported. Survivors, however, continue to be excessively burdened with symptoms such as respiratory distress which interfere with functioning and quality of life. While exercise and physical activity are strongly recommended, NSCLC survivors may be reluctant to participate due to actual or anticipated shortness of breath exacerbated with movement.

This quasi-experimental, intervention-only pilot study aimed to determine the effects of an 8-week standardized yoga protocol for Stage I–IIIa NSCLC survivors (n=9). The protocol was developed within the Viniyoga (Hatha) tradition with respiratory experts. Breathing ease, dyspnea, oxygen saturation, and respiratory function were explored in relationship to yoga practice (45-minute sessions once per week and home practice) using repeated-measures analysis. Number of participants reporting dyspnea ranged from 25 to 50% prior to practice with no significant increase during sessions, and moderate decreases noted at times. Oxygen saturation remained high and vital signs stable; forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) values increased significantly over the 14-week study period (p<0.0001). Yoga, with an emphasis on postures coordinated with breathing and meditation practices, offers a potentially feasible and beneficial option that requires further study in this population.

Keywords: yoga; breathing; lung cancer

References

  • 1.

    Birdee GS, Legedza AT, Saper RB, Bertisch SM, Eisenberg DM, Phillips RS. Characteristics of yoga users: results of a national survey. J Gen Intern Med 2008;23:1653–8. [Crossref]

  • 2.

    Cohen L, Wameke C, Fouladi R, Rodriguez MA, Chaoul-Reich A. Psychological adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of the effects of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients with lymphoma. Cancer 2004;100:2253–60. [Crossref]

  • 3.

    Danhauer SC, Mihalko SL, Russell GB, Campbell CR, Felder L, Daley K, et al. Restorative yoga for women with breast cancer: findings from a randomized pilot study. Psychooncology 2009;18:360–8. [Crossref]

  • 4.

    Moadel AB, Shah C, Wylie-Rosett J, Harris MS, Patel SR, Hall CB, et al. Randomized controlled trial of yoga among a multiethnic sample of breast cancer patients: effects on quality of life. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:4387–95. [Crossref]

  • 5.

    Rao MR, Raghuram N, Nagendra HR, Gopinath KS, Srinath BS, Diwaker RB, et al. Anxiolytic effects of a yoga program in early breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2009;17:1–8. [Crossref]

  • 6.

    Ross A, Thomas S. The health benefits of yoga and exercise: a review of comparison studies. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:3–12. [Crossref]

  • 7.

    Smith KB, Pukall CF. An evidence-based review of yoga as a complementary intervention for patients with cancer. Psychooncology 2009;18:465–75. [Crossref]

  • 8.

    Ulger O, Yagli NV. Effects of yoga on the quality of life of cancer patients. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2010;16:60–3. [Crossref]

  • 9.

    Vadiraja HS, Rao MR, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR, Rehka M, Vanitha N, et al. Effects of a yoga program on cortisol rhythm and mood states in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. Integr Cancer Ther 2009;8:37–46.

  • 10.

    Vadiraja HS, Rao MR, Nagarathna R, Nagrenda HR, Rehka M, Vanitha M, et al. Effects of yoga program on quality of life and affect in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2009;17:274–80. [Crossref]

  • 11.

    Coups EJ, Park BJ, Feinstein MB, Steingart RM, Egleston BL, Wilson DJ, et al. Physical activity among lung cancer survivors: changes across the cancer trajectory and associations with quality of life. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers 2009;18:664–72. [Crossref]

  • 12.

    Courneya KS, Friedenreich CM. Relationship between exercise pattern across the cancer experience and current quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors. J Altern Complement Med 1997;3:215–26. [Crossref]

  • 13.

    Knols R, Aaronson NK, Uebelhart D, Fransen J, Aufdemkampe G. Physical exercise in cancer patients during and after medical treatment: a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:3830–42. [Crossref]

  • 14.

    Schmitz KH, Holtzman J, Courneya KS, Masse LC, Duval S, Kane R. Controlled physical activity trials in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:1588–95. [Crossref] [PubMed]

  • 15.

    Ferreira KASL, Kimura M, Teixeira MJ, Mendoza TR, da Nobrega JCM, Graziani SR, et al. Impact of cancer-related symptom synergisms on health-related quality of life and performance status. J Pain Symptom Manage 2008;35:604–16. [Crossref]

  • 16.

    Hansen F, Sawatzky JV. Stress in patients with lung cancer: a human response to illness. Oncol Nurs Forum 2008;35:217–23. [Crossref]

  • 17.

    Sarna L, Padilla G, Holmes C, Tashkin D, Brecht ML, Evangelista L. Quality of life of long-term survivors of non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2920–9. [Crossref]

  • 18.

    Sarna L, Evangelista L, Tashkin D, Padilla G, Holmes C, Brecht ML, Grannis F. Impact of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function on quality of life of long-term survivors of non-small cell lung cancer. Chest 2004;125:439–45. [Crossref]

  • 19.

    Sarna L, Cooley ME, Brown JK, Chernecky C, Elashoff D, Kotlerman J. Symptom severity 1 to 4 months after thoracotomy for lung cancer. Am J Crit Care 2008;17:455–67.

  • 20.

    Sarna L, Cooley ME, Brown JK, Chernecky C, Padilla G, Danao L, Chakravarty D, Elashoff D. Women with lung cancer: quality of life after thoracotomy: a 6-month prospective study. Cancer Nurs 2010;33:85–92. [Crossref]

  • 21.

    Flynn KE, Shelby RA, Mitchell SA, Fawzy MR, Hardy NC, Husain AM, et al. Sleep-wake functioning along the cancer continuum: focus group results from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®). Psychooncology 2010;19:1086–93.

  • 22.

    Gift AG, Jablonski A, Stommel M, Given CW. Symptom clusters in elderly patients with lung cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2004;31:203–12. [Crossref]

  • 23.

    Given B, Given CW, Sikorskii A, Jeon S, McCorkle R, Champion V, et al. Establishing mild, moderate, and severe scores for cancer-related symptoms: how consistent and clinically meaningful are interference-based severity cut-points? J Pain Symptom Manage 2008;35:126–35. [Crossref]

  • 24.

    Gooneratne NS, Dean GE, Rogers AE, Nkwuo JE, Coyne JC, Kaiser LR. Sleep and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors. Lung Cancer 2007;58:403–10. [Crossref]

  • 25.

    Hewitt J, Smeeth L, Bulpitt C, Tulloch A, Fletcher A. Respiratory symptoms in older people and their association with mortality. Thorax 2005;60:331–4. [Crossref]

  • 26.

    Molassiotis A, Zheng Y, Denton-Cardew L, Swindell R, Brunton L. Symptoms experienced by cancer patients during the first year from diagnosis: patient and informal caregiver ratings and agreement. Palliat Support Care 2010;8:313–24.

  • 27.

    Podnos YD, Borneman TR, Koczywas M, Uman G, Ferrell BR. Symptom concerns and resource utilization in patients with lung cancer. J Palliat Med 2007;10:899–903. [Crossref]

  • 28.

    Snyder CF, Garrett-Mayer E, Brahmer JR, Carducci MA, Pili R, Stearns V, et al. Symptoms, supportive care needs, and function in cancer patients: how are they related? Qual Life Res 2008;17:665–77. [Crossref]

  • 29.

    Vena C, Parker K, Cunningham M, Clark J, McMillan S. Sleep-wake disturbances in people with cancer Part I: an overview of sleep, sleep regulation, and effects of disease and treatment. Oncol Nurs Forum 2004;31:735–46. [Crossref]

  • 30.

    Vena C, Parker KP, Allen R, Bliwise DL, Jain S, Kimble L. Sleep-wake disturbances and quality of life in patients with advanced lung cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2006;33:761–9. [Crossref]

  • 31.

    Wang, XS, Shi Q, Lu C, Basch EM, Johnson VE, Mendoza TR, et al. Prognostic value of symptom burden for overall survival in patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer 2010;116:137–45.

  • 32.

    Brown JK, Cooley ME, Chernecky C, Sarna L. A symptom cluster and sentinel symptom experienced by women with lung cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2011;38:E425–35. [Crossref]

  • 33.

    Cheville AL, Novotny, PJ, Sloan, JA, Basford JR, Wampfler JA, Garces YI, et al. The value of symptom cluster of fatigue, dyspnea, and cough in predicting clinical outcomes in lung cancer survivors. J Pain Symptom Manage 2011;42:213–21. [Crossref]

  • 34.

    Ferrell B, Koczywas M, Grannis F, Harrington A. Palliative care in lung cancer. Surg Clin North Am 2011;91:403–417. [Crossref]

  • 35.

    Fox SW, Lyon DE. Symptom clusters and quality of life in survivors of lung cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2006;33:931–6. [Crossref]

  • 36.

    Gaguski ME, Brandsema M, Gernalin L, Martinez E. Assessing dyspnea in patients with non-small cell lung cancer in the acute care setting. Clin J Oncol Nurs 2010;14:509–13. [Crossref]

  • 37.

    Tanaka K, Akechi T, Okuyama T, Nishiwaki Y, Uchitomi Y. Prevalence and screening of dyspnea interfering with daily life activities in ambulatory patients with advanced lung cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 2002;23:484–9. [Crossref]

  • 38.

    Thomas S, Bausewein C, Higginson I, Booth S. Breathlessness in cancer patients – implications, management and challenges. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2011;15:459–69. [Crossref]

  • 39.

    Travers J, Dudgeon DJ, Amjadi K, McBride I, Dillon K, Laveneziana P, et al. Mechanisms of exertional dyspnea in patients with cancer. J Appl Physiol 2008;104:57–66.

  • 40.

    Beckles MA, Spiro SG, Colice GL, Rudd RM. Initial evaluation of the patient with lung cancer: symptoms, signs, laboratory tests and paraneoplastic syndromes. Chest 2003;123:97S–104S. [Crossref]

  • 41.

    Quast E, Williams M. Distress with breathing in people with lung cancer: a systematic review. Intern J Allied Health Sci Pract 2009;7:1–11.

  • 42.

    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2010. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2010.

  • 43.

    American Thoracic Society. Dyspnea. Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:321–40.

  • 44.

    Carrieri-Kohlman V, Donesky-Cuenco D, Park SK, Mackin L, Nguyen HQ, Paul SM. Additional evidence for the affective dimension of dyspnea in patients with COPD. Res Nurs Health 2010;33:4–19.

  • 45.

    Akechi T, Okuyama T, Akizuki N, Shimizu K, Inagaki M, Fujimori M, et al. Associated and predictive factors of sleep disturbance in advanced cancer patients. Psychooncology 2007;16:888–94. [Crossref]

  • 46.

    Dodge R, Cline MG, Quan SF. The natural history of insomnia and its relationship to respiratory symptoms. Arch Inter Med 1995;155:1797–1800.

  • 47.

    Parish JM. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions. Chest 2009;135:563–72. [Crossref]

  • 48.

    Fouladbakhsh, JM. Yoga. Oncology Nurse Edition 2011;25:40–5.

  • 49.

    Veerabhadrappa SG, Baljoshi VS, Khanapure S, Herur A, Patil S, Ankad RB, et al. Effect of yoga bellows on cardiovascular autonomic reactivity. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2011;2:223–7. [Crossref]

  • 50.

    Büssing A, Ostermann T, Lüdtke R, Michalsen A. Effects of yoga interventions on pain and pain-associated disability: a meta-analysis. J Pain 2012;13:1–9. [Crossref]

  • 51.

    Danucalov MA, Simoes RS, Kozasa EH, Leite JR. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic changes during yoga sessions: the effects of respiratory exercises and meditation practices. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2008:33:77–81. [Crossref]

  • 52.

    Harinath K, Malhotra AS, Pal K, Prasad R, Kumar R, Kain TC, et al. Effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10:261–8. [Crossref]

  • 53.

    Innes KE, Bourguignon C, Taylor AG. Risk indices associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and possible protection with yoga: a systematic review. J Am Board of Fam Pract 2005;18:491–519.

  • 54.

    Ray US, Pathak A, Tomer OS. Hatha yoga practices: energy expenditure, respiratory changes and intensity of exercise. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011; Article ID 241294. Doi: 10.1093/ecam/neq041–12. [Crossref]

  • 55.

    Telles S, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Breathing through a particular nostril can alter metabolism and autonomic activities. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1994;38:133–7.

  • 56.

    Brown RP, Gerbarg PL. Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: part I – neurophysiologic model. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:189–201. [Crossref]

  • 57.

    Brown RP, Gerbarg PL. Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: part II – clinical applications and guidelines. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:711–7. [Crossref]

  • 58.

    Zick, S., Kelly, K., Mao, J., Fouladbakhsh, J. M., Pruthi, S, & Ben-Arye, E. (2012). Research Symposium on integrative cancer symptomology: Challenges, successes and resources in clinical research: Part II. Paper presented at the International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, Portland, OR, USA.

  • 59.

    Michalsen A, Grossman P, Acil A, Langhorst J, Lüdtke R, Esch T, et al. Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among distressed women as a consequence of a three-month intensive yoga program. Med Sci Monit 2005;11:CR555– CR561.

  • 60.

    West J, Otte C, Geher K, Johnson J, Mohr DC. Effects of hatha yoga and African dance on perceived stress, affect, and salivary cortisol. Ann Behav Med 2004:28:114–8. [Crossref]

  • 61.

    Selvamurthy W, Sridharan K, Ray US, Tiwary RS, Hegde KS, Radhakrishan U, et al. A new physiological approach to control essential hypertension. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;42:205–13.

  • 62.

    Gokal R, Shillito L, Maharaj SR. Positive impact of yoga and pranayam on obesity, hypertension, blood sugar, and cholesterol: a pilot assessment. J Altern Complement Med 2007;13:1056–7. [Crossref]

  • 63.

    Khatri D, Mathur KC, Gahlot S, Jain S, Agrawal RP. Effects of yoga and meditation on clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;78:e9–e10. [Crossref]

  • 64.

    Damodaran A, Malathi A, Patil N, Shah N, Suryavansihi, Marathe S. Therapeutic potential of yoga practices in modifying cardiovascular risk profile in middle aged men and women. J Assoc Phys India 2002;50:633–639.

  • 65.

    Spicuzza L, Gabutti A, Porta C, Montano N, Bernardi L. Yoga and chemoreflex response to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Lancet 2000:356:1495–6. [Crossref]

  • 66.

    Bhattacharya S, Pandey US, Verma NS. Improvement in oxidative status with yogic breathing in young healthy males. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2002;46:349–54.

  • 67.

    Carlson LE, Speca M, Patel KD, Goodey E. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress and levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and melatonin in breast and prostate cancer outpatients. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2004;29:448–74. [Crossref]

  • 68.

    Galantino ML, Greene L, Archetto B, Baumgartner M, Hassall P, Murphy JK, et al. A qualitative exploration of the impact of yoga on breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgias. Explore 2012:8: 40–7. [Crossref]

  • 69.

    Gopal KS, Bhatnagar OP, Subramanian N, Nishith SD. Effect of yogasanas and pranayamas on blood pressure, pulse rate and some respiratory functions. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1973;17:273–6.

  • 70.

    Kamei T, Toriumi Y, Kimura H, Ohno S, Kumano H, Kimura K. Decrease in serum cortisol during yoga exercise is correlated with alpha wave activation. Percept Mot Skills 2000;90:1027–32. [Crossref]

  • 71.

    Khanam AA, Sachdeva U, Guleria R, Deepak KK. Study of pulmonary and autonomic functions of asthma patients after yoga training. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1996;40:318–24.

  • 72.

    Kraftsow G. Yoga for wellness. New York: Penguin Compass Publishers, 1999.

  • 73.

    Malhotra V, Singh S, Singh K, Gupta P, Sharma S, Madhu S, et al. Study of yoga asanas in assessment of pulmonary function in NIDDM patients. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2002;46:313–20.

  • 74.

    Raub J. Psychophysiologic effects of Hatha Yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature review. J Altern Complement Med 2002;8:797–812. [Crossref]

  • 75.

    Sahajpal P, Ralte R. Impact of induced yogic relaxation training (IYRT) on stress-level, self-concept and quality of sleep among minority group individuals. J Indian Psychol 2000;18:66–73.

  • 76.

    Saper RB, Sherman KJ, Cullum-Dugan D, Davis RB, Phillips RS, Culpepper L. Yoga for chronic low back pain in a predominantly minority population: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Altern Ther Health Med 2009;15:18–27.

  • 77.

    Singh S, Malhotra V, Singh KP, Sharma SB, Madhu SV, Tandon OP. A preliminary report on the role of yoga asanas on oxidative stress in non-insulin dependent diabetes. Indian J Clin Biochem 2001;16:216–20. [Crossref]

  • 78.

    Telles S, Desiraju T. Oxygen consumption during pranayamic type of very slow-rate breathing. Indian J Med Research 1991;94:357–63.

  • 79.

    Tran MD, Holly RG, Lashbrook J, Amsterdam EA. Effects of Hatha Yoga practice on the health-related aspects of physical fitness. Prev Cardiol 2001;4:165–70. [Crossref]

  • 80.

    Udupa KN, Singh RH, Settiwar RM. Physiological and biochemical studies on the effect of yogic and certain other exercises. Indian J Med Res 1975;63:620–4.

  • 81.

    Ankad RB, Herur A, Patil S, Shashikala GV, Chinagudi S. Effect of short-term pranayama and meditation on cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals. Heart Views 2011;12:58–62. [Crossref]

  • 82.

    Bhavanani AB, Sanjay Z, Madanmohan. Immediate effect of sukha pranayama on cardiovascular variables in patients of hypertension. Int J Yoga Therap 2011:21:73–76.

  • 83.

    Jerath R, Edry JW, Barnes VA, Jerath V. Physiology of long pranayamic breathing: neural respiratory elements may provide a mechanism that explains how slow deep breathing shifts the autonomic nervous system. Med Hypothesis 2006;67:566–71. [Crossref]

  • 84.

    Kuntsevich V, Bushell WC, Theise ND. Mechanisms of yogic practices in health, aging and disease. Mt Sinai J Med 2010;77:559–69. [Crossref]

  • 85.

    Pramanik T, Sharma HO, Mishra S, Mishra A, Prajapati R, Singh S. Immediate effect of slow pace bhastrika pranayama on blood pressure and heart rate. J Altern Comp Med 2009;15:293–5. [Crossref]

  • 86.

    Posadzki P, Parekh S, Glass N. Yoga and Qigong in the psychological prevention of mental health disorders: a conceptual synthesis. Chin J Integr Med 2010;16:80–6. [Crossref]

  • 87.

    Donesky-Cuenco D, Nguyen HQ, Paul S, Carrieri-Kohlman V. Yoga therapy decreases dyspnea-related distress and improves functional performance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:225–34. [Crossref]

  • 88.

    de Godoy DV, Bringhenti RL, Severa A, de Gasperi R, Poli L. Yoga versus aerobic activity: effects on spirometry results and maximal inspiratory pressure. J Bras Pneumol 2006;32:130–5.

  • 89.

    Pullen PR, Nagamia SH, Mehta PJ, Thompson WR, Bernadot D, Hammond R, et al. Effects of yoga on inflammation and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. J Cardiac Fail 2008;14:407–13. [Crossref]

  • 90.

    Sharma V. Yoga for Respiratory Challenges. Paper presented at the Second IAYT Symposium on Yoga Therapy and Research (SYTAR), March 6–9, 2008, Los Angeles, California.

  • 91.

    Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Erro J, et al. Comparing yoga, exercise and a self-care book for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2005;143:849–56. [Crossref]

  • 92.

    Melville GW, Chang D, Colaguiri B, Marshall PW, Cheema BS. Fifteen minutes of chair-based yoga postures or guided meditation performed in the office can elicit a relaxation response. Evid Based Complem Altern Med 2012: Article ID 501896. Doi.10.1155/2012/501986. [Crossref]

  • 93.

    Campbell DE, Moore KA. Yoga as a preventative and treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. Int J Yoga Ther 2004;14:53–8.

  • 94.

    Phillips KM, Jim HS, Donovan KA, Pinder-Schenck MC, Jacobsen PB. Characteristics and correlates of sleep disturbances in cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2012;20:357–65. [Crossref]

  • 95.

    Khattab K, Khattab AA, Ortak J, Richardt G, Bonnemeier H. Iyengar yoga increases cardiac parasympathetic nervous modulation among healthy yoga practitioners. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2007;4:511–7.

  • 96.

    Bijlani RL, Vampati RP, Yadav RK, Ray RB, Gupta V, Sharma R, et al. A brief but comprehensive life style education program based on yoga reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:267–74. [Crossref]

  • 97.

    Chodzinski J. The effect of rhythmic breathing on blood pressure in hypertensive adults. J Undergrad Res 2000; Available at http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091523/00031

  • 98.

    Pal GK, Velkumary S, Madanmohan. Effect of short-term practice of breathing exercises on autonomic functions in normal human volunteers. Indian J Med Res 2004;120:115–21.

  • 99.

    Jayasinghe SR. Yoga in cardiac health (a review). Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2004;11:369–75.

  • 100.

    Sarang PS, Telles S. Oxygen consumption and respiration during and after two yoga relaxation techniques. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2006;31:143–53. [Crossref]

  • 101.

    Chanavirut R, Khaidjapho K, Jaree P, Pongnaratorn P. Yoga exercise increases chest wall expansion and lung volumes in young healthy Thais. Thai J Physiol Sci 2006;19:1–7.

  • 102.

    Halvorson C. Stretching to breathe: can yoga help your asthma? Asthma Mag 2002;7:27–9.

  • 103.

    Abelson JL, Khan S, Giardino N. HPA axis, respiration and the airways in stress – a review in search of intersections. Biol Psychol 2010;84:57–65. [Crossref]

  • 104.

    Carson JW, Carson KM, Porter LS, Keefe FJ, Shaw H, Miller JM. Yoga for women with metastatic breast cancer: results from a pilot study. J Pain Symptom Manage 2007;33:331–41. [Crossref]

  • 105.

    Carson JW, Carson KM, Porter LS, Keefe FJ, Seewaldt VL. Yoga of Awareness program for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: results from a randomized trial. Support Care Cancer 2009;17:1301–9. [Crossref]

  • 106.

    Chandwani KD, Thornton B, Perkins GH, Arun B, Raghuram NV, Nagendra HR, et al. Yoga improves quality of life and benefit finding in women undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. J Soc Integr Oncol 2010;8:43–55.

  • 107.

    Raghavendra RM, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR, Gopinath KS, Srinath BS, Ravi BD, et al. Effects of an integrated yoga therapy programme on chemo­therapy-induced nausea and emesis in breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2007;16:462–74. [Crossref]

  • 108.

    Speed-Andrews AE, Stevinson C, Belanger LJ, Mirus JJ, Courneya KS. Pilot evaluation of an Iyengar yoga program for breast cancer survivors. Cancer Nurs 2010;33:369–81. [Crossref]

  • 109.

    Bower JE, Woolery A, Sternlieb B, Garet D. Yoga for cancer patients and survivors. Cancer Control 2005;12:165–71.

  • 110.

    Joseph CD. Psychological supportive therapy for cancer patients. Indian J Cancer 1983;20:268–70.

  • 111.

    Streeter CC, Jensen JE, Perlmutter RM, Cabral HJ, Tian H, Terhune DB, et al. Yoga asana sessions increase brain GABA levels: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2007;13:419–26. [Crossref]

  • 112.

    Stuck M, Meyer K, Rigotti T, Bauer K, Sack U. Evaluation of a yoga-based stress management training for teachers: effects on immunoglobulin A secretion and subjective relaxation. J Medit Medit Res 2003;3:59–68.

  • 113.

    National Cancer Institute. Surveillance epidemiology and end results. Cancer statistics review 1975–2008. Accessed August 2, 2011. Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/

  • 114.

    Fouladbakhsh JM, Stommel M. Comparative analysis of CAM use in the U.S. cancer and noncancer populations. J Complement Integr Med 2008;5:1–25.

  • 115.

    Fouladbakhsh JM, Stommel M. Using the behavioral model for complementary and alternative medicine: the CAM health-care model. J Complement Integr Med 2007;4:1–21.

  • 116.

    Andersen RM. Behavioral models of families’ use of health services. Research Series No.15. Chicago: University, Center for Administration Studies; 1968.

  • 117.

    Andersen RM. Revisiting the Behavioral Model and access to medical care: Does it matter? J Health Soc Behav 1995;36:1–10. [Crossref]

  • 118.

    Fouladbakhsh JM, Davis JA, Yarandi H. Development and testing of a Viniyoga protocol for non-small cell lung cancer patients. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium of Yoga Therapy Research. J Yoga Ther, Suppl. Sept 2010.

  • 119.

    Fouladbakhsh JM, Davis JE, Yarandi H. Effects of a standardized yoga intervention on mood and salivary cortisol levels of stage I-IIIa non-small cell lung cancer patients. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of the Society of Integrative Oncology, Cleveland, OH, Nov 2011.

  • 120.

    Stommel M, Wills CE. Clinical research: concepts and principles for advanced practice nurses. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

  • 121.

    Shadish WR, Cook TD, Campbell DT. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; 2002.

  • 122.

    Winer BJ, Brown DR, Michels KM. Statistical principles in experimental design, 3rd ed. McGraw Hill, 1991.

  • 123.

    Liang KY, Zeger SL. Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika 1986;73:13–22. [Crossref]

  • 124.

    Fouladbakhsh JM, Stommel M. Gender, symptom experience, and use of complementary and alternative medicine among cancer survivors in the U.S. cancer population. Oncol Nurs Forum 2010;37:E7–E15. [Crossref]

  • 125.

    Cappo BM, Holmes DS. The utility of prolonged respiratory exhalation for reducing physiological and psychological arousal in non-threatening and threatening situations. J Psychosom Res 1984;28:265–73. [Crossref]

  • 126.

    Madanmohan, Udupa K, Bhavanani AB, Vijayalakshmi P, Surendiran A. Effect of slow and fast pranayams on reaction time and cardiorespiratory variables. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005:49:313–8.

  • 127.

    Saxena T, Saxena M. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Int J Yoga 2009;2:22–5. [Crossref]

About the article

Received: 2012-05-21

Accepted: 2012-12-05

Published Online: 2013-06-26


Citation Information: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, ISSN (Online) 1553-3840, ISSN (Print) 2194-6329, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2012-0013. Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Thyra Langhagen, Nicole Lehrer, Ingo Borggraefe, Florian Heinen, and Klaus Jahn
Frontiers in Neurology, 2015, Volume 5
[2]
Judith M. Fouladbakhsh, Jean E. Davis, and Hossein N. Yarandi
Oncology Nursing Forum, 2014, Volume 41, Number 2, Page 162

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in