Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Lui, Edmund

Ed. by Ko, Robert / Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin / Saunders, Paul / Suntres, PH. D., Zacharias


CiteScore 2017: 1.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.472
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.564

Online
ISSN
1553-3840
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Comparison of honey and phenytoin (PHT) cream effects on intensity of pain and episiotomy wound healing in nulliparous women

Mohadesseh Lavaf
  • Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Masoumeh Simbar
  • Corresponding author
  • Midwifery and Reproductive Health Research Center (MRHRC), Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Avenue, Cross of Vali-Asr and Neiaiesh Highway Tehran. Postal code: 1996835119Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Faraz Mojab
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Research Center of Pharmaceutical sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hamid Alavi Majd
  • Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Mansoureh Samimi
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-10-05 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2016-0139

Abstract

Background

This study investigates and compares the effect of phenytoin and honey cream on intensity of pain and episiotomy wound healing in nulliparous women.

Methods

This research was conducted by double-blinded randomized clinical trial method on 120 nulliparous women in three groups of phenytoin, honey and placebo. After delivery and episiotomy, mothers used a knuckle of the prescribed creams on their episiotomy area, every night until 10-night. Evaluation of wound healing using REEDA scale and pain intensity with numerical rating scale of pain took place within the first 24 h and after 7 and 14 days of delivery.

Results

Results showed significant differences between healing scores of the three groups for the seventh day after delivery. Healing score in the honey group was lower than that in placebo group. On the fourteenth day after delivery, the healing scores showed no significant differences between the three groups. Measuring pain intensity did not show any significant difference in the three groups after 7 and 14 days of delivery.

Conclusions

Both honey and phenytoin led to episiotomy wound healing; however, honey caused the wound healing better than the phenytoin. Honey and phenytoin did not reduce episiotomy pain.

Keywords: episiotomy; honey cream; pain intensity; phenytoin cream; wound healing

References

  • [1]

    Jahdi F, Eghdampur F, KHerkhah M, Haghani H, Taghi Zadeh M, Mehrabi A. The effect of aloe vera ointment on perineal pain following episiotomy: single-blind randomized clinical trial. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci Health Serv. 2011;3:43–9 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Golmakani N, Rabii Motlagh A, Tara F, Asili J, SHakeri M. The effect of turmeric ointment on healing of episiotomy in nulliparous women. J Obstet Gynecol Infertil Iran. 2008;4:29–39 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Abedian Z, Navabi Rigi SH, Dadgar S, Esmaeili H. The effect of cooling gel pad, ice packs on perineal pain and healing after episiotomy in nulliparous women. J Obstet Gynecol Infertil Iran. 2006;2:79–86 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [4]

    KHajue SHojaii K, Davati A, Zaeri F. The frequency of episiotomy and its complications in nulliparous women. Qom Univ Med Sci. 2009;2:1–4 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Golmakani N, Vafaii Saiidi SH, Mazlum R, Soltani B. Evaluation rate of perineal trauma in routine and elective episiotomy in nulliparous women. J Obstet Gynecol Infertil Iran. 2007;6:32–8 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [6]

    Zhou F, Wang XD, Li J, Huang GQ, Gao BX. Hyaluronidase for reducing perineal trauma 2014. Status and date: New, published in(2).Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Nashar S, Nikolov A, Atanasova M, Garnizov T. Efficiency of Cikatridina spray for healing of episiotomy and perineal ruptures. Akusherstvo I Ginekologiia. 2010;50:20–5.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    Daghigh Bin A, Montazeri S, Aghel N. The effect of honey on pain and episiotomy wound healing in primiparous women. Congress of traditional medicine Integrated Treatment and Herbal medicine, Khoram abad; 2010 18–20 November [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Cooper ML, Laxer JA, Hans Brough JF. The cytotoxic effects of commonly used topical antimicrobial agents on human fibroblasts and reratinocytes. J Trauma. 1991;31:775–82.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    Masumi Z, Keramat A, Haji Aghaii R. Systematic review of the efficacy of medicinal plants on pain after cutting cesarean section and perineal pain. J Med Plants. 2011;4:1–12 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [11]

    Abrishami M, Akbarzade Baghban A, Ansari GH. Effect of phenytoin gel 1 % improvement in the clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. J Islamic Dent Assoc Dentists. 2008;4:343–8 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [12]

    Bhatia A, Prakash S. Topical phenytoin for wound healing. Dermatol Online J. 2004;10:5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    Cernak M, Majtanova N. Honey prophylaxis reduces the risk of endophthalmitis during perioperative period of eye surgery. Phytotherapy Res. 2012;26:613–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Heidari T, Roozbahani N. Does Iranian Astragalus gossypinus honey assist in healing caesarean wounds and scars?. Eur J Integr Med. 2013;5:226–33.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Fazel N, Hashemian M, Ramezani M, Akaberi A. Comparison of honey with clotrimazole alone or mix together on the vaginal candidiasis. J Obstet Gynecol Infertil Iran. 2011;14:48–54 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [16]

    Omidvari SH, Taghi Zadeh A, Razmju Ghalaii S, Nasrollahi H, Ahmadlu N, Ansari M, Effects of topical honey, cream hydrocortisone and wash simple at improvements of dermatitis induced radiation in breast cancer patients. J Isfahan Med Sch. 2010;114:828–36 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [17]

    Mirbagher Ajorpaz N, Hafezi M, Salehi S, Tayebi A, Shenasa F, Zehtabchi S. Comparison of pure and impure honey on the initial menstrual pain, bleeding time and distance between two female students with primary dysmenorrhea. J Evid Based Care. 2011;2:23–33.Google Scholar

  • [18]

    Sehati SHafaii F, Rashidi F, Javadzadeh Y, Ghujazadeh M. Effect of phenytoin cream on wound healing episiotomy in nulliparous women. Res Sci J Shahid Sodughi Yazd Univ Med Sci. 2012;2:152–8 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [19]

    Kutner MH, Nachtsheim CJ, Neter JJ, Li W. Applied linear statistical models, 5th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.Google Scholar

  • [20]

    Mashhood AA, Khan TA, Sami AN. Honey compared with 1 % silver sulfadiazine cream in the treatment of superficial and partial thickness burns. J Pakistan Assoc Dermatol. 2006;16:14–9.Google Scholar

  • [21]

    Molan PC. The evidence supporting the use of honey as a wound dressing. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2006;5:40–54.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22]

    Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Arip M, Murad S. Identification of major allergens of wildflower honey. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:370–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Davidson NR. Healing of the perineumSalt Lake City Department of Nursing, University of Utah, , 1970. Unpublished master thesis.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Carey IL. Healing of the perineum, a follow up study. Salt Lake City: University of Utah, , 1971. Unpublished master thesis.Google Scholar

  • [25]

    Pasero C, McCaffery M. Assessment underlying complexities, misconceptions, and practical tools. Pain: clinical manual, 2nd St. Louis: Mosby, 1999:35–102.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Hill PD. Psychometric properties of the REEDA. J Nurse Midwifery. 1990;35:162–5.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    Fleming VE, Hagen S, Niven C. Does perineal suturing make a difference? The SUNS trial. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;110:684–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28]

    Clark D. Herbs for Postpartum Perineum Care: Part One. Midwifery Today, Inc. Trauma. Lancet. 2005;352:772–6.Google Scholar

  • [29]

    Kindberg S, Stehouwer M, Hvidman L, Henriksen TB. Postpartum perineal repair performed by midwives: a randomised trial comparing two suture techniques leaving the skin unsutured. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;115:472–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30]

    Santos JD, Oliveira SM, Nobre MR, Caranha AC, Alvarenga MB. A randomised clinical trial of the effect of low-level laser therapy for perineal pain and healing after episiotomy: a pilot study. Midwifery. 2012;28:653–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31]

    Razmju N, Adeli M, Tara F, Ebrahim Zadeh S. The impact of early nutrition on wound healing after cesarean. J Horizon Res. 2013;2:84–8 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [32]

    Mekondi S, Abaspur M, Amin Far S. Effect of topical gentamicin solution on repair of episiotomy: a controlled clinical trial. J Obstet Gynecol Infertil Iran. 2013;88:21–8 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [33]

    Wall P, Melzack R. Textbook of pain, 4th Edinburg: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.Google Scholar

  • [34]

    Phipps JW. Medical surgical nursing health and illness perspective, 7th London: Mosby publishing, 2002.Google Scholar

  • [35]

    Jahdi F, Sheikhan F, Haghani H. The effect of cooling gel pad on the intensity of perineal pain following episiotomy. Arak Med Univ J. 2010;13:76–83.Google Scholar

  • [36]

    Harrison R, Brennan M, Reed J, Wickham E. A review of post-episiotomy pain and its treatment. Curr Med Res Opin. 1987;10:359–63.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37]

    Farahnaz F, Motavaselian M. The effect of muscle relaxation techniques on pain of episiotomy in nulliparous women. Pajoohandeh J. 2003;4:9–15.Google Scholar

  • [38]

    Daghigh Bin A, Montazeri S, Aghel N. Comparison of the effect of lavender cream and honey on pain and episiotomy wound healing in primiparous women. Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Infertility Of Iran/ Special Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran’s First International Congress on Midwifery and Reproductive Health, 2011;50–7 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [39]

    Vardi A, Barzilay Z, Linder N, Cohen H, Paret G, Barzilai A. Local application of honey for treatment of neonatal postoperative wound infection. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87:429–32.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [40]

    Jan WA, Shah H, Khan M, Fayaz M, Ullah N. Comparison of conventional pyodine dressing with honey dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. J Postgrad Med Inst (Peshawar-Pakistan). 2012;26:10–18.Google Scholar

  • [41]

    Lusby PE, Coombes AL, Wilkinson JM. Bactericidal activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria. Arch Med Res. 2005;36:464–7.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [42]

    Molan PC. The role of honey in the management of wounds. J Wound Care. 1999;8:415–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [43]

    Committee CME. Honey scientific report. Australia: Therapeutic Goods Administration, 1998. 119.Google Scholar

  • [44]

    Dunford C, Cooper R, Molan P, White R. The use of honey in wound management. Nursing Stand (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain): 1987). 2000;15:63.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [45]

    Yaghoobi R, Kazerouni A. Evidence for clinical use of honey in wound healing as an anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory anti-oxidant and anti-viral agent: a review. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2013;8:100–20.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [46]

    Hollisaz MT, Khedmat H, Yari F. A randomized clinical trial comparing hydrocolloid, phenytoin and simple dressings for the treatment of pressure ulcers. BMC Dermatol. 2004;4:18.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [47]

    Pereira CA, Alchorne AO. Assessment of the effect of phenytoin on cutaneous healing from excision of melanocytic nevi on the face and on the back. BMC Dermatol. 2010;10:7.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [48]

    DaCosta ML, Regan MC, Sader M, Leader AM, Bouchier-Hayes D. Diphenylhydantoin sodium promotes early and marked angiogenes is and results in increased collagen deposition and tensile strength in healing wounds. Surgery. 1998;123:287–93.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [49]

    Sinha S, Amarasena I. Does phenytoin have a role in the treatment of pressure ulcers?. Wound Pract Res J Aust Wound Manag Assoc. 2008;16:37.Google Scholar

  • [50]

    Hasamnis A, Mohanty B, Patil S. Evaluation of wound healing effect of topical phenytoin on excisional wound in albino rats. J Young Pharm. 2010;2:59–62.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [51]

    Riahi S, Imani H, Torkaman G. Efficacy of topical application of honey on cutaneous wound healing in rats with full thickness. Kowsar Med J. 2008;3:169–78 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [52]

    Riahi S, Imani H, KHosh baten A. Effect of topical honey and phenytoin in closure of open wounds in rats. J Res Sci Army Islamic Republic Iran Univ Med Sci. 2009;2:73–9 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [53]

    Rezaii A, Mohajeri D, Mohamad Nejad S. Histometrical and histopathological investigate the effects essential oil from pelargonium roseum in comparison to phenytoin after surgical trauma on rat skin. J Fac Pharmacy Tabriz Univ Med Sci. 2008;15:31–38 [Persian].Google Scholar

  • [54]

    Subrahmanyam M. Topical application of honey in treatment of burns. Br J Surg. 1991;78:497–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [55]

    Subrahmanyam M. Honey impregnated gauze versus polyurethane film in the treatment of burns – A prospective randomised study. Br J Plast Surg. 1993;46:322–3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [56]

    Subrahmanyam M. Honey dressing versus boiled potato peel in the treatment of burns: a prospective randomized study. Burns. 1996;22:491–3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [57]

    Subrahmanyam M. A prospective randomised clinical and histological study of superficial burn wound healing with honey and silver sulfadiazine. Burns. 1998;24:157–61.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [58]

    Oluwatosin OM, Olabanji JK, Oluwatosin OA, Tijani LA, Onyechi HU. A comparison of topical honey and phenytoin in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2000;29:31–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [59]

    Ahmed AK, Hoekstra MJ, Hage JJ, Karim RB. Honey medicated dressing: transformation of an ancient remedy into modern therapy. Ann Plast Surg. 2003;2:143–8.Google Scholar

  • [60]

    A M A, Sarhan HA, Magdy T. Preparation and characterization of phenytoin sodium niosomes for enhanced closure of skin injuries. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3:312–20.Google Scholar

  • [61]

    Carneiro PM, Rwanyuma LR, Mkony CA. A comparison of topical phenytoin with silverex in the treatment of superficial dermal burn wounds. Cent Afr J Med. 2002;48:105–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [62]

    Bogaert H, Saleta B, Sanchez E, Garcia B. Trophic leprosy ulcers: treatment with topical and systemic phenytoin. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29:156–7.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [63]

    Modaghegh S, Salehian B, Tavassoli M, Djamshidi A, Rezai AS. Use of phenytoin in healing of war and non‐war wounds. Int J Dermatol. 1989;28:347–51.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [64]

    Efem S. Clinical observations on the wound healing properties of honey. Br Journal Surg. 1988;75:679–81.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [65]

    Efem SE. Recent advances in the management of Fournier’s gangrene: preliminary observations. Surgery-Saint Louis. 1993;113:200–200.Google Scholar

  • [66]

    Ingle R, Levin J, Polinder K. Wound healing with honey-a randomised controlled trial. South Afr Med J. 2006;96:831–5.Google Scholar

  • [67]

    Ndayisaba G, Bazira L, Habonimana E, Muteganya D. Clinical and bacteriological results in wounds treated with honey. J Orthopaedic Surg. 1993;7:202–4.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-11-24

Accepted: 2017-07-03

Published Online: 2017-10-05


Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


Citation Information: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Volume 15, Issue 1, 20160139, ISSN (Online) 1553-3840, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2016-0139.

Export Citation

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Nurul Ibrahim, Sok Wong, Isa Mohamed, Norazlina Mohamed, Kok-Yong Chin, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, and Ahmad Shuid
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018, Volume 15, Number 11, Page 2360
[2]
Peimaneh Naghdi Dorbati, Zohreh Mahmoodi, Katayoun Salehi, Mahrokh Dolatian, and Abolfazl Mahmoodi
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 2018, Volume In Press, Number In Press

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in