Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Lui, Edmund

Ed. by Ko, Robert / Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin / Saunders, Paul / Suntres, PH. D., Zacharias

CiteScore 2017: 1.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.472
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.564

See all formats and pricing
More options …

Pharmacological and phytochemical screening of Palestinian traditional medicinal plants Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis

Nidal Jaradat
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Motasem AlMasri
  • Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Abdel Naser Zaid
  • Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dua’a Ghazi Othman
  • Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-09-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0059


Background: Various epidemiological studies showed that herbal remedies containing polyphenols may protect against various diseases such as cancers, vascular diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Currently, such groups of bioactive compounds have become a subject of many antimicrobials and antioxidant investigations. Accordingly, the current study aimed to conduct biological and phytochemical screening for two Palestinian traditional medicinal plants, Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis.

Methods: Current plants phytoconstituents and their antioxidant activities were evaluated by using standard phytochemical methods; meanwhile, antimicrobial activities were estimated by using several types of American Type Culture Collection and multidrug resistant clinical isolates by using agar diffusion well-variant, agar diffusion disc-variant and broth microdilution methods.

Results: Phytochemical screenings showed that L. orientalis and E. laciniatum contain mixtures of secondary and primary metabolites Moreover, total flavonoid, tannins and phenols content in E. laciniatum extract were higher than the L. orientalis extracts with almost the same antioxidant potentials. Additionally, both plants organic and aqueous extracts showed various potentials of antimicrobial activity

Conclusions: Overall, the studied species have a mixture of phytochemicals, flavonoids, phenols and tannins also have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities which approved their folk uses in treatments of infectious and Alzheimer diseases and simultaneously can be used as therapeutic agents in the pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antimicrobial; antioxidant; E. laciniatum; L. orientalis; phytoconstituents


  • [1]

    Joshi DD. Herbal drugs and fingerprints: evidence based herbal drugs. USA: Springer, 2012.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Ford K. Exposing the dangers and true motivations of conventional medicine: a summary of the most commonly misdiagnosed illnesses of modern medicine. USA: Lulu Publishing Service, 2015.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Patridge E, Gareiss P, Kinch MS, Hoyer D. An analysis of FDA-approved drugs: natural products and their derivatives. Drug Discov Today. 2015;21:204–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Vadhana P. Emergence of herbal antimicrobial drug resistance in clinical bacterial isolates. Pharm Anal Acta. 2015;2015:1–7.Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Santhosh RS, Suriyanarayanan B. Plants: a source for new antimycobacterial drugs. Planta Med. 2014;80:9–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    Jaradat NA, Zaid AN, Abuzant A, Khalaf S, Abu-Hassan N. Phytochemical and biological properties of four Astragalus species commonly used in traditional Palestinian medicine. Eur J Integr Med. 2017;9:1–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Markers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes and plasma during aging in humans. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2010;3:2–12.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Rodgers J. Holy land, headlines from the holy land. USA: Springer, 2015:170–89.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Djamali M, Brewer S, Breckle SW, Jackson ST. Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: a test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia. Flora-Morphology Distrib Funct Ecol Plants. 2012;207:237–49.Google Scholar

  • [10]

    Surmaghi MS, Amin YA, Mahmoodi Z. Survey of Iranian plants for saponins alkaloids flavonoids and tannins. IV. DARU J Pharm Sci. 1992;2:1–11.Google Scholar

  • [11]

    Oran SA. A list of flowering wild plants in Tafila Province, Jordan. Int J Biodivers Conserv. 2014;6:28–40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Danin A. Distribution atlas of plants in the Flora Palaestina area. Jerusalem: Academy of Sciences, 2004.Google Scholar

  • [13]

    Ali-Shtayeh M, Jamous RM. Traditional arabic Palestinian herbal medicine, TAPHM. Palestine: BERC, 2008.Google Scholar

  • [14]

    Ediage E, Di Mavungu J, Scippo M, Schneider Y. Screening, identification and quantification of glucosinolates in black radish (Raphanus sativus L. niger) based dietary supplements using liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:4395–405.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Jaradat NA, Shawahna R, Hussein F, Al-Lahham S. Analysis of the antioxidant potential in aerial parts of Trigonella arabica and Trigonella berythea grown widely in Palestine: a comparative study. Eur J Integr Med. 2016;8:623–30.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Trease G, Evans W. Pharmacognosy, 12 ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1983.Google Scholar

  • [17]

    Harborne A. Phytochemical methods a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. United States: Springer Science & Business Media, 1998.Google Scholar

  • [18]

    Folin O, Denis W. A colorimetric method for the determination of phenols (and phenol derivatives) in urine. J Biol Chem. 1915;22:305–8.Google Scholar

  • [19]

    Cheung L, Cheung PC, Ooi VE. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chem. 2003;81:249–55.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal. 2002;10:178–82.Google Scholar

  • [21]

    Nugroho A, Kim M, Lee J, Kim J, Lee K, Choi J, et al. Polyphenol analysis and peroxynitrite scavenging effect of the extracts from eight Korean mountainous vegetable. Korean J Pharmacogn. 2011;42:38–45.Google Scholar

  • [22]

    Singh R, Sharma S, Sharma V. Comparative and quantitative analysis of antioxidant and scavenging potential of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. extracts. Eur J Integr Med. 2015;13:269–78.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Kardel M, Taube F, Schulz H, Schütze W, Gierus M. Different approaches to evaluate tannin content and structure of selected plant extracts-review and new aspects. J Appl Bot Food Qual. 2013;86:16–25.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Falahati M, Tabrizib NO, Jahaniani F. Anti dermatophyte activities of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in comparison with Griseofulvin. Iranian J Pharmacol Ther. 2005;4:80–3.Google Scholar

  • [25]

    Wikler MA. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: seventeenth informational supplement. USA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2007.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS. Study guide for Bailey & Scott’s diagnostic microbiology. United States: Mosby, 2007.Google Scholar

  • [27]

    Abualhasan M, Jaradata N, Abu-Hasanb N, Almasrib M. Bioactivity of viscum album extracts from olive and almond host plants in Palestine. Pharmacogn J. 2014;6:117–23.Google Scholar

  • [28]

    Klepser ME, Wolfe EJ, Jones RN, Nightingale CH, Pfaller MA. Antifungal pharmacodynamic characteristics of fluconazole and amphotericin B tested against Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:1392–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Velioglu Y, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah B. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;46:4113–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30]

    Kim B, Kim J, Kim H, Heo M. Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti‐oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1997;19:299–307.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [31]

    Vinson JA, Hao Y, Su X, Zubik L. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;46:3630–4.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [32]

    Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, Posner BM, Ellison RC, Castelli WP, et al. Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in men. Jama. 1995;273:1113–7.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [33]

    Ames BN, Gold LS, Willett WC. The causes and prevention of cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1995;92:5258–65.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34]

    Noguchi N, Niki E. Phenolic antioxidants:: a rationale for design and evaluation of novel antioxidant drug for atherosclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;28:1538–46.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [35]

    Young I, Woodside J. Antioxidants in health and disease. J Clin Pathol. 2001;54:176–86.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36]

    Halliwell B. The antioxidant paradox. The Lancet. 2000;355:1179–80.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37]

    Testa A, Leonardis D, Spoto B, Sanguedolce MC, Parlongo RM, Pisano A, et al. A polymorphism in a major antioxidant gene (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) predicts incident cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease patients: an exploratory study. J Hypertens. 2016;34:928–34.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [38]

    Kubben N, Zhang W, Wang L, Voss TC, Yang J, Qu J, et al. Repression of the antioxidant NRF2 pathway in premature aging. Cell. 2016;165:1361–74.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [39]

    Johnston PC, McCance DR, Holmes VA, Young IS, McGinty A. Placental antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: the effect of vitamin C and E supplementation. J Diabetes Complications. 2016;30:109–14.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [40]

    Limagne E, Thibaudin M, Chalons P, Végran F, Mignot G. Importance of immune system modulation in anti-inflammatory and antitumoral properties of resveratrol, a polyphenol of wine. J Int Soc Antioxid Nutr Health. 2016;3.Google Scholar

  • [41]

    Kahn LH. One health and the politics of antimicrobial resistance. USA: JHU Press, 2016.Google Scholar

  • [42]

    Dong K, Ju E, Gao N, Wang Z, Ren J, Qu X. Synergistic eradication of antibiotic-resistant bacteria based biofilms in vivo using a NIR-sensitive nanoplatform. Chem Commun. 2016;52:5312–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [43]

    Cushnie TT, Lamb AJ. Recent advances in understanding the antibacterial properties of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;38:99–107.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [44]

    Asadi-Samani M, Kafash-Farkhad N, Azimi N, Fasihi A, Alinia-Ahandani E, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2015;5:146–57.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [45]

    Ahmad A, Kaleem M, Ahmed Z, Shafiq H. Therapeutic potential of flavonoids and their mechanism of action against microbial and viral infections-A review. Food Res Int. 2015;77:221–35.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [46]

    Vidhani SI, Vyas VG, Parmar HJ, Bhalani VM, Hassan MM, Gaber A, et al. Evaluation of some chemical composition, minerals fatty acid profiles, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) from India. Am J Food Sci Technol. 2016;4:52–7.Google Scholar

  • [47]

    Daglia M. Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012;23:174–81.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [48]

    Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem. 2005;91:571–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [49]

    Tapas AR, Sakarkar D, Kakde R. Flavonoids as nutraceuticals: a review. Trop J Pharm Res. 2008;7:1089–99.Google Scholar

  • [50]

    Marcucci MC. Propolis: chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity. Apidologie. 1995;26:83–99.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [51]

    Tripoli E, La Guardia M, Giammanco S, Di Majo D, Giammanco M. Citrus flavonoids: molecular structure, biological activity and nutritional properties: a review. Food Chem. 2007;104:466–79.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [52]

    Singh M, Kaur M, Silakari O. Flavones: an important scaffold for medicinal chemistry. Eur J Med Chem. 2014;84:206–339.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [53]

    Asif M. Chemistry and antioxidant activity of plants containing some phenolic compounds. Chem Int. 2015;1:35–52.Google Scholar

  • [54]

    Koirala N, Thuan NH, Ghimire GP, Van Thang D, Sohng JK. Methylation of flavonoids: chemical structures, bioactivities, progress and perspectives for biotechnological production. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2016;86:103–16.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [55]

    Ismail T, Sestili P, Akhtar S. Pomegranate peel and fruit extracts: a review of potential anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:397–405.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [56]

    Bouaziz M, Dhouib A, Loukil S, Boukhris M, Sayadi S. Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts of some wild plants collected from the south of Tunisia. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8:7017–27.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-04-24

Accepted: 2017-06-28

Published Online: 2017-09-01

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Volume 15, Issue 1, 20170059, ISSN (Online) 1553-3840, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0059.

Export Citation

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in