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Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Lui, Edmund

Ed. by Ko, Robert / Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin / Saunders, Paul / Suntres, PH. D., Zacharias

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Evaluation of antipyretic activity of Belladonna and Pyrogenium ultrahigh dilutions in induced fever model

Antipyretic effects of Belladonna and Pyrogenium

Saeed Ahmad
  • Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
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/ Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi
  • Corresponding author
  • University College of Conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
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/ Tayyeba Rehman
  • University College of Conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
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Published Online: 2018-10-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0127



Belladonna and Pyrogenium are commonly used to treat fever in homeopathy. But in vivo antipyretic activity of these medicines is not reported yet. The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrahigh dilutions of Belladonna (Bell) and Pyrogenium (Pyro) in fever model of rabbits induced by Baker's yeast.


Healthy, local strain rabbits (♂ and ♀) were divided into seven groups (n=42): Normal control, negative control, standard control, pyro 1000c, pyro 200c, Bell 1000c and Bell 200c. Fever was induced by intra peritoneal injection of 135 mg/kg Baker’s yeast suspension. Rectal temperature was measured hourly. All the medicines were administered once a day. The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. ANOVA and least significant difference post hoc test were applied for checking the level of significance, p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant statistically.


Pyro in both potencies significantly reduced fever in rabbits compared to negative control group, while both potencies of Bell were ineffective. Paracetamol and Pyro 1000c reduced by 1.2 °C (39.7 ± 0.1 to 38.5 ± 0.1), while Pyro 200c reduced by 1 °C temperature (39.7 ± 0.5 to 38.7 ± 0.2).


Pyro possesses marked antipyretic activity in rabbit’s Baker's yeast fever model. It would embolden its clinical use in fever with more guarantee of its efficacy. However, caveat of small sample size necessitates replication of experiment in large sample size.

Keywords: animal model; anti pyretic; Belladonna; Pyrogenium; ultrahigh dilutions


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About the article

Received: 2018-07-26

Accepted: 2018-08-11

Published Online: 2018-10-17

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Volume 16, Issue 1, 20180127, ISSN (Online) 1553-3840, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0127.

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