Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Lui, Edmund

Ed. by Ko, Robert / Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin / Saunders, Paul / Suntres, PH. D., Zacharias


CiteScore 2017: 1.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.472
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.564

Online
ISSN
1553-3840
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Muscle stretching with deep and slow breathing patterns: a pilot study for therapeutic development

Kulwarang WongwilairatORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0154-1402
  • School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • orcid.org/0000-0002-0154-1402
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Orawan Buranruk
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Wichai Eungpinichpong
  • School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Rungthip Puntumetakul
  • School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Somporn Kantharadussadee-Triamchaisri
  • Department of Occupational Health, Faculty of Public Health, Chalermkanchana University, Si Sa Ket, Thailand
  • Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-08-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0167

Abstract

Background

Chronic neck pain is frequently found in office workers affecting quality of life; also, stress is one participating factor. Though stretching incorporating deep-slow breathing (DSB) has benefits on health, an effective and suitable technique for office workers to perform in the workplace is a gap in need of fulfilment.

Methods

We explored the effective pattern of stretching with DSB to reduce neck tension and promote relaxation within the shortest time. Thirty-two female participants with neck tension were allocated into two steps totaling five patterns (n=8 for each pattern). Firstly, they performed two patterns; two other patterns were developed and compared with DSB alone. Muscle tension, pain score, and heart rate variability (HRV) were immediately measured.

Results

All patterns performed with the eyes closed decreased muscle tension more than those performed with the eyes open; the pain amid all stretching groups subsequently decreased. Only a bout of slow stretching, performed synchronously with the eyes closed along with a period of deep inhalation increased the parasympathetic activity of HRV; an increase in pain was reported after stretching.

Conclusions

A slowed and synchronized pattern between stretching with DSB and eyes closed period, performed at least four times repeatedly rendered benefits in reducing neck pain and tension, in addition to promoting relaxation within a short period; however, the DSB pattern and the feeling of the stretched muscle to promote relaxation were individual differences. Thus, future studies should come up with apposite training methods adjusted to fit individuals; self-awareness toward these aspects ought to be encouraged.

Keywords: alternative therapy; health prevention; intervention development; mindfulness; self-awareness

References

  • 1.

    Côté P, Van Der Velde G, Cassidy JD, Carroll LJ, Hogg-Johnson S, Holm LW, et al. The burden and determinants of neck pain in workers: results of the bone and joint decade 2000–2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders. Spine. 2008;33:S60–74.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 2.

    Svebak S, Hagen K, Zwart J-A. One-year prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain in a large adult Norwegian country population: relations with age and gender-the HUNT study. J Musculoskelet Pain. 2006;14:21–28.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3.

    Curatolo M, Arendt-Nielsen L, Petersen-Felix S. Central hypersensitivity in chronic pain: mechanism and clinical implications. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2006;17:287–302.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 4.

    Waersted M, Hanvold TN, Veiersted KB. Computer work and musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and upper extremity: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:79.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Kabat-Zinn J. Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clin Psychol Sci Prac. 2003;10:144–56.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    Braboszcz C, Hahusseau S, Delorme A. Meditation and neuroscience: from basic research to clinical practice. In: RA Carlstedt, editors. Handbook of integrative clinical psychology, psychiatry and behavioral medicine: perspectives, practices and research. New York: Springer Publishing; 2010: 755–78.Google Scholar

  • 7.

    Khatib MF, Oku Y, Bruce EN. Contribution of chemical feedback loops to breath-to breath variability of tidal volume. Respir Physiol. 1991;83:115–27.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 8.

    Sammon MP, Bruce EN. Vagal afferent activity increases dynamical dimension of respiration in rats. J Appl Physiol. 1991;70:1748–62.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Mourya M, Mahajan AS, Singh NP, Jain AK. Effect of slow- and fast-breathing exercises on autonomic functions in patients with essential hypertension. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:711–17.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Bernardi L, Porta C, Spicuzza L, Bellwon J, Spadacini G, Frey AW, et al. Slow breathing increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation. 2002;105:143–45.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 11.

    Busch V, Magerl W, Kern U, Haas J, Hajak G, Eichhammer P. The effect of deep and slow breathing on pain perception, autonomic activity, and mood processing – an experimental study. Pain Med. 2012;13:215–28.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Brody LT, Hall CM, editors. Therapeutic exercise: moving toward function, 3rd ed. Philadelphia PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Kay AD, Blazevich AJ. Effect of acute static stretch on maximal muscle performance: a systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:154–64.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14.

    Page P. Current concepts in muscle stretching for exercise and rehabilitation. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012;7:109–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Cramer H, Klose P, Brinkhaus B, Michalsen A, Dobos G. Effects of yoga on chronic neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil. 2017;31:1457–65.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation on obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998.Google Scholar

  • 17.

    Sora AE. Soft tissue, joints and bones: chapter 6 upper extremity pain. In: R Melzack, PD Wall, editors. Handbook of pain management. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2003: 77–93.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Jensen MP, Chen C, Brugger AM. Interpretation of visual analog scale ratings and change scores: a reanalysis of two clinical trials of postoperative pain. J Pain. 2003;4:407–14.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19.

    Edwards J, Knowles N. Superficial dry needling and active stretching in the treatment of myofascial pain – a randomized controlled trial. Acupunct Med. 2003;21:80–86.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    Bijur PE, Silver W, Gallagher EJ. Reliability of the visual analog scale for measurement of acute pain. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8:1153–57.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 21.

    Kleiger RE, Stein PK, Bigger JT, Jr. Heart rate variability: measurement and clinical utility. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2005;10:88–101.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 22.

    Hainsworth R. The control and physiological importance of heart rate. In: M Malik, AJ Camm, editors. Heart rate variability. New York: Futura Publishing Company, 1995: 3–19.Google Scholar

  • 23.

    Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation. 1996;93:1043–65. DOI:CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 24.

    Squire LR, Berg D, Bloom FE, Du Lac S, Ghosh A, Spitzer NC, editors. Fundamental neuroscience, 4th ed. China: Academic Press, 2013.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Moore MA, Hutton RS. Electromyographic investigation of muscle stretching techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12:322–29.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 26.

    Knudson D. The biomechanics of stretching. J Exerc Sci Physiother. 2006;2:3–12.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Routledge FS, Campbell TS, McFetridge-Durdle JA, Bacon SL. Improvements in heart rate variability with exercise therapy. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26:303–12.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 28.

    Morone NE, Lynch CS, Greco CM, Tindle HA, Weiner DK. I felt like a new person.” the effects of mindfulness meditation on older adults with chronic pain: qualitative narrative analysis of diary entries. J Pain. 2008;9:841–48.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 29.

    Uusberg H, Uusberg A, Talpsep T, Paaver M. Mechanisms of mindfulness: the dynamics of affective adaptation during open monitoring. Biol Psychol. 2016;118:94–106.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 30.

    Plowman SA, Smith DL, editors. Exercise physiology for health, fitness, and performance, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-12-07

Accepted: 2018-07-09

Published Online: 2018-08-22


Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: The project was funded by the Graduate School and Research Center in Back, Neck, other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH), Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The authors declare no existence of competing financial interest.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


Citation Information: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 20170167, ISSN (Online) 1553-3840, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0167.

Export Citation

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in