Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Lui, Edmund

Ed. by Ko, Robert / Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin / Saunders, Paul / Suntres, PH. D., Zacharias

CiteScore 2017: 1.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.472
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.564

See all formats and pricing
More options …

Nephroprotective properties of the methanol stem extract of Abrus precatorius on gentamicin-induced renal damage in rats

Olufunke Olubunmi Falayi
  • Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi
  • Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale
  • Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Emmanuel Abiodun Ayodele / Aduragbenro Deborah Adedapo
  • Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Momoh Audu Yakubu
  • Department of Environmental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, College of Science, Technology and Engineering, Texas Southern University, 3100 Cleburne Avenue, Houston, TX 77004, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Adeolu Alex Adedapo
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-10-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0176



The use of plants for the treatment and prevention of diseases in man and his animals has led to a renewed scientific interest in the use of medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes. The nephroprotective properties of methanol stem bark extract of Abrus precatorius against gentamicin-induced renal damage in rats was evaluated in this study.


Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. Group A was the negative control group while B was the positive control group which received gentamicin 100 mg/kg intra-peritoneally for 6 days. Group C were pretreated with 100 mg/kg extract for the 3 days and then concurrently with gentamicin 100 mg/kg for 3 days and group D were pretreated with 200 mg/kg extract for 3 days and then concurrently with gentamicin 100 mg/kg for 3 days. Group E received gentamicin intraperitoneally for 6 days followed by administration of 200 mg/kg of the extract for 3 days. Blood samples, kidneys and kidney homogenates were collected for haematological, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.


The results showed that no significant haematological changes were noted. The groups treated with extract exhibited significant increase in body weight gain. While group B significantly exhibited focal areas of inflammation, fatty degeneration, congestion of vessels, tubular necrosis and glomerular atrophy, the lesions were mild with the treated groups. Treated groups exhibited a dose dependent significant decrease in serum creatinine, urea, XO, NO and Myeloperoxidase, AOPP, Protein carbonyl, H2O2 generated and MDA levels when compared with group B. There were significant dose dependent improvements in SOD, GST, GSH, Protein thiol, and non-protein thiol levels in the treated groups when compared with group B. In immunohistochemistry, Group B exhibited over expression of CRP and NF-κB levels, and marked reduction in expression of Bcl-2 while the reverse was seen in the groups treated with methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius.


The methanol extract of Abrus precatorius plays a vital role against gentamicin induced renal damage by reducing levels of renal markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, enhancing enzymatic and non enzymatic renal antioxidant system, alongside an increase in Bcl-2 and a decrease in NF-κB and CRP expressions.

Keywords: Abrus precatorius; anti-oxidant; gentamicin; immunohistochemistry; nephroprotection


  • [1]

    Oridupa OA, Saba AB, Sulaiman LK. Preliminary report on the antiviral activity of the ethanolic fruit extract of lagenaria breviflora roberts on newcastle disease virus. Trop Vet 2011;29:22–33.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Birhan W, Mirutse G, Tilahun T. The contribution of traditional healers’ clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. J Ethnobiomed Ethnopharmacol 2011;7:39.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Oladele AT, Alade GO, Omobuwajo OR. Medicinal plants conservation and cultivation by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in aiyedaade local government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Agri Biol J North Am 2011;2:476–87.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Prusty KB, Harish B, Mamatha CH. Evaluation of nephroprotective Activity of the methanolic extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata Linn, (family-Caesalpiniaceae). J Pharm Sci Technol 2012;2:16–9.Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Mansour HH, Hafez HF, Fahmy NM. Silymarin modulates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. J Biochem Mol Biol 2006;30:656.Google Scholar

  • [6]

    Mensah AY, Bonsu AS, Fleischer TC. Investigation of the bronchodilator activity of Abrus precatorius. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2011;6:9–13.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Acharya D, Sancheti G, Shrivastava A. Medicinal plants for curing common ailments in India. Posit Health 2004;102:28–30.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    Reedman L, Shih RD, Hung O. Survival after an intentional ingestion of crushed abrus seeds. West J Emergency Med 2008;9:157.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Maregesi SM, Mwakigonja AR, Urio P. Toxicity evaluation of Abrus precatorius seeds collected from Bunda District, Tanzania. Sch Acad J Pharm 2016;5:399–405.Google Scholar

  • [10]

    Garaniya N, Bapodra A. Ethno botanical and phytopharmacological potential of Abrus precatorius L.: a review. Asian Pac J Trop Bio 2014;4:S27–34.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Solanki A, Zaveri M. Effect of aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius leaf on DNBS - induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2012;16:35–9.Google Scholar

  • [12]

    Anbu J, Ramya M, Krishna PS, Ramya HS, Vineeth R, Sathiya R, et al. Management of inflammatory bowel disease and experimental models established for evaluation-an update. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;4:1065–86.Google Scholar

  • [13]

    Gornal AG, Bardawill JC, David MM. Determination of serum proteins by means of biuret reaction. J Biol Chem 1949;177:751–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Beutler EO, Duron B, Kelly M. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:882–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra W. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Sci 1973;179:588–90.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jacoby WB. Glutathione-S-transferase activity: the enzymic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 1974;249:130–9.Google Scholar

  • [17]

    Misra HP, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem 1972;25:3170–5.Google Scholar

  • [18]

    Oyagbemi AA, Omobowale TO, Akinrinde AS, Saba AB, Ogunpolu BS, Daramola O. Lack of reversal of oxidative damage in renal tissues of lead acetate‐treated rats. Environ Toxicol 2015;30:1235–43.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    Varshney R, Kale RK. Effects of calmodulin antagonists on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes. Int J Radiat Biol. 1990;58:733–43.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Woff SP. Ferrous ion oxidation in presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for the measurement of hydroperoxide. Method Enzymol 1994;233:182–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    Kayali R, Cakatay U, Akcay T, Altug T. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on markers of protein oxidation in post-mitotic tissues of ageing rat. Cell Biochem Funct 2006;24:79–85.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [22]

    Reznick AZ, Packer L. Oxidative damage to proteins: spectrophotometric method for carbonyl assay. Methods Enzymol 1994;233:357–63.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Olaleye SB, Adaramoye OA, Erigbali PP, Adeniyi OS. Lead exposure increases oxidative stress in the gastric mucosa of HCl/ethanol-exposed rats. World J Gastroenterol 2007;13:5121–6.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [24]

    Akaike T, Ando M, Oda T, Doi T, Ijiri S, Araki S, et al. Dependence on O2-generation by xanthine oxidase of pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in mice. J Clin Invest 1990;85:739–43.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    Drury RA, Wallington EA, Cancerson R. Carlton’s histopathological techniques, 4th ed. Oxford/London/New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Dalle-Donne I, Rossi R, Giustarini D, Milzani A, Colombo R. Protein carbonyl groups as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Clin Chim Acta 2003;329:23–38.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    Chaware VJ. Protective effect of the aqueous extract of Phaseolus radiates seeds on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2012;3:73–5.Google Scholar

  • [28]

    Gaurav VH, Chandragauda RP, Mahesh RP. Protective effect of Kalanchoe pinnata pers (Crassulaceae) on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2007;39:201–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Hussain T, Gupta R, Sweety K, Eswaran B, Vijayakumar M, Rao CV. Nephroprotective activity of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in experimental rodents. Asia Pac J Trop Med 2012;5:686–91.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30]

    Erdem A, Gundogan NU, Usubutun A, Kilinc K, Erdem SR, Kara A. The protective effect of taurine against gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis in rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009;15:1175–82.Google Scholar

  • [31]

    Farag MM, Mikhail M, Shehata R, Abdel-Meguid E, Abdel-Tawab S. Assessment of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats treated with low doses of ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium. Clin Sci 1996;91:187–91.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [32]

    Moghaddam AH, Javaheri M, Nabavi SF, Mahdavi MR, Nabavi SM, Ebrahimzadeh MA. Protective role of Pleurotus porrigens (angel’s wings) against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicty in mice. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2010;14:1011–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [33]

    Cachofeiro V, Goicochea M, de Vinuesa SG, Oubiña P, Lahera V, Luño J. Oxidative stress and inflammation, a link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Kidney Int 2008;74:4–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34]

    Heinecke JW, Li W, Francis GA, Goldstein JA. Tyrosyl radical generated by myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidative cross-linking of proteins. J Clin Invest 1993;91:2866–72.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [35]

    Tripathi P, Tripathi P, Kashyap L, Singh V. The role of nitric oxide in in £ ammatory reactions. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2007;51:443–52.Google Scholar

  • [36]

    Korhonen R, Lahti A, Kankaanranta H, Moilanen E. Nitric oxide production and signaling in inflammation. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 2005;4:471–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [37]

    Gul MZ, Ahmad F, Kondapi AK, Qureshi IA, Ghazi IA. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Abrus precatorius leaf extracts-an in vitro study BMC Complement Alter Med. 2013;13:53.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [38]

    Škvařilová M, Bulava A, Stejskal D, Adamovská S, Bartek J. Increased level of advanced oxidation products (AOPP) as a marker of oxidative stress in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Biomed Papers 2005;149:83–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39]

    Kumar KV, Naidu MU, Shifow AA, Ratnakar KS. Probucol protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2000;32:108–13.Google Scholar

  • [40]

    Kuhad A, Tirkey N, Pilkhwal S, Chopra K. Effect of Spirulina, a blue green algae, on gentamicin‐induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2006;20:121–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [41]

    Farombi EO, Ekor M. Curcumin attenuates gentamicin-induced renal oxidative damage in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:1443–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [42]

    Kosek JC, Mazze RI, Cousin MJ. Nephrotoxicity of gentamicin. Lab Invest 1974;30:48–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [43]

    Bennett WM, Elzinga LW, Porter GA. Tubulointerstitial disease and toxic nephropathy. In: BM Brenner, FC Rector, editors. The Kidney, 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co., 1991:1430–96.Google Scholar

  • [44]

    Szabó C, Ischiropoulos H, Radi R. Peroxynitrite: biochemistry, pathophysiology and development of therapeutics. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007 August;6:662–80CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [45]

    Laborde E. Glutathione transferases as mediators of signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and cell death. Cell Death Differ 2010;17:1373.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [46]

    Thounaojam MC, Jadeja RN, Devkar RV, Ramachandran AV. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;132:365–7.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [47]

    Arunkumar PA, Viswanatha GL, Radheshyam N, Mukund H, Belliyappa MS. Science behind cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in humans: A clinical study. Asia Pac J Trop Bio 2011;2:640–4.Google Scholar

  • [48]

    Nabavi SF, Russo GL, Daglia M, Nabavi SM. Role of quercetin as an alternative for obesity treatment: you are what you eat!. Food Chem 2015;179:305–10.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [49]

    Lebri M, Tilaoui M, Bahi C, Achibat H, Akhramez S, Fofie YB, et al. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro anticancer effect of aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius Linn. Der Pharma Chemica 2015;7:112–7.Google Scholar

  • [50]

    Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci World J 2013;2013.Google Scholar

  • [51]

    Babbar N. An introduction to alkaloids and their applications in pharmaceutical chemistry. Pharma Innov J 2015;1;4:74–5.Google Scholar

  • [52]

    Troy CM, Derossi D, Prochiantz A, Greene LA, Shelanski ML. Downregulation of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase leads to cell death via the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite pathway. J Neurol Sci 1996;16:253–61.Google Scholar

  • [53]

    Kane DJ, Sarafian TA, Anton R, Hahn H, Gralla EB, Valentine JS, et al. Bcl-2 inhibition of neural death: decreased generation of reactive oxygen species. Sci 1993;262:1274–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [54]

    Rosalki SB. C-reactive protein. J Clin Practi 2001;55:269–70.Google Scholar

  • [55]

    Perkins ND. Integrating cell-signalling pathways with NF-κB and IKK function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2007;8:49–62.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [56]

    Monaco C, Andreakos E, Kiriakidis S, Mauri C, Bicknell C, Foxwell B, et al. Canonical pathway of nuclear factor κB activation selectively regulates proinflammatory and prothrombotic responses in human atherosclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci US 2004;101:5634–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [57]

    Karahan I, Ateşşahin A, Yılmaz S, Çeribaşı AO, Sakin F. Protective effect of lycopene on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats. Toxicol 2005;215:198–204.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [58]

    Cuzzocrea S, Mazzon E, Dugo L, Serraino I, Di PR, Britti D. A role for superoxide in gentamicin-mediated nephropathy in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;450:67–76.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [59]

    Ueda N, Kaushal GP, Shah SV. Apoptotic mechanisms in acute renal failure. Am J Med Technol 2002;108:403–15.Google Scholar

About the article

Correction note: Correction added after ahead-of-print publication on October 26, 2018: The first name and last name of the authors has been changed to reflect the correct order.

Received: 2017-12-20

Accepted: 2018-09-13

Published Online: 2018-10-26

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: National Research Foundation of the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFUND), Abuja, Nigeria (TETFUND/DESS/NRF/UI IBADAN/STI/VOL/I/B2.20.11)

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 20170176, ISSN (Online) 1553-3840, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0176.

Export Citation

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in