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Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Lui, Edmund

Ed. by Ko, Robert / Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin / Saunders, Paul / Suntres, PH. D., Zacharias

CiteScore 2017: 1.41

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Use of natural remedies to treat oral diseases among female patients in Al Madinah, western Saudi Arabia

Najla S. Dar-Odeh
  • Corresponding author
  • College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia
  • School of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Rafal A. Gasim / Sara M Binsaad / Shaden Abu-Hammad / Osama A Abu-Hammad
  • College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia
  • School of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2019-01-19 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0032



The study aimed to investigate natural remedies use (NRU) for oral diseases among female patients.


Dental patients attending the female section of Taibah University Dental Hospital were invited to complete an online questionnaire which explored demographic data, and pattern of NRU for oral diseases.


A total of 540 patients participated in the survey. A total of 232 patients (43%) used natural remedies to treat oral diseases. The most commonly cited reasons for NRU were financial reasons (n=79, 34.1%). The practice had a statistically significant association with older participants (p=0.003), and those working as employees (p=0.031). Most of the natural remedies used (n=17) were herbal, with cloves (71.1%) and miswak (26.7%) being the most frequently reported. Acute dental pain (n=157, 67.7%) and halitosis (n= 51, 22%) were the most frequently cited oral conditions associated with NRU. A percentage of 87.1% of patients using natural remedies (n=202) perceived improvement of symptoms upon use of natural remedies, however, 2.2% (n=5) reported complications.


Substantial proportion of patients use natural remedies to treat their oral disease. Patients were mostly satisfied with natural remedies in terms of effectiveness and lack of complications.

Keywords: dental; medicinal; mouth disease; plants; self-medication


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About the article

Received: 2018-04-08

Accepted: 2018-11-11

Published Online: 2019-01-19

Author contributions: ND: study and questionnaire design, first draft; RG: study and questionnaire design, patient selection and recruitment; SB: patient selection and recruitment; SA: literature review and statistical analysis, OA: questionnaire design and statistical analysis.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 20180032, ISSN (Online) 1553-3840, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0032.

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