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Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Lui, Edmund

Ed. by Ko, Robert / Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin / Saunders, Paul / Suntres, PH. D., Zacharias


CiteScore 2017: 1.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.472
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.564

Online
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1553-3840
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Music to reduce pain and anxiety in cystoscopy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Herney Andrés García-Perdomo
  • Corresponding author
  • UROGIV Research Group at Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia
  • Associate Professor School of Medicine at Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Laura M. Montealegre Cardona / Maria Juliana Cordoba-Wagner / James A. Zapata-Copete
  • UROGIV Research Group at Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia
  • Universidad Libre, Epidemiology Department, Cali, Colombia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-10-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0095

Abstract

Background

To assess the effectiveness and harms of music to reduce anxiety and pain in cystoscopy.

Methods

We searched MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, LILACS and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to nowadays. We included clinical trials, involving the assessment of the effect of music in cystoscopy. The primary outcomes were pain and anxiety measured by any scale and the secondary outcomes were length of stay, physiological parameters (blood pressure or heart rate) and adverse effects. Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias. We performed the statistical analysis in R and reported information about mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 test.

Results

We included six studies in our qualitative and quantitative analysis. Five studies used a flexible cystoscope and the other one performed the procedure with a rigid cystoscope. Music was played during the procedure in five studies, while the other was before it. All studies compared music vs. no intervention. Almost all items were assessed as low risk of bias; however, the allocation concealment was unclear in all the studies. We found a MD of −1.33 (95% CI −2.45 to −0.21) (I2=97.2%) favoring music for pain and a MD of −8.42 (95% CI −15.02, −1.82) (I2=99.6%) was found, favoring music for anxiety.

Conclusions

Playing music might be an effective intervention that lowers pain and anxiety in patients who undergo cystoscopy.

Keywords: anxiety; cystoscopy; meta-analysis; music; pain

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About the article

Received: 2018-06-10

Accepted: 2018-09-06

Published Online: 2018-10-12


Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


Citation Information: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 20180095, ISSN (Online) 1553-3840, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0095.

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