Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management

Editor-in-Chief: Renda-Tanali, Irmak, D.Sc.

Managing Editor: McGee, Sibel, Ph.D.

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.474
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.627

CiteScore 2016: 0.57

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.245
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.358

Online
ISSN
1547-7355
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Incorporating Time Dynamics in the Analysis of Social Networks in Emergency Management

Jeroen Wolbers / Peter Groenewegen / Julia Mollee / Jan Bím
Published Online: 2013-09-24 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2013-0019

Abstract

Timely and adequate communication is essential for the response to emergency situations. The current vision on emergency response embraces the networked organization as an answer to the dilemmas of communication and information flows in crisis situations. With stabilization of the network paradigm, the focus question turns into how networks are perceived and in what manner they function. We argue that there is a need to attend to the way networks and their functioning are assessed. From the agenda that we derive, we pay attention to the manner in which the time critical nature of the communication during emergency situations can be captured in network terms. The focus on how network interaction unfolds over time is demonstrated by attending to a case of a tunnel incident in the Netherlands. It is argued that a structure-oriented network analysis misses much of the actions and that using the data to probe the communication patterns with additional methods for time dependency enhances our insights. Three approaches, time slices, two-mode analysis and information pathways, are then introduced and the outcomes are interpreted.

Keywords: communication; emergency; network; social network analysis; timeliness

References

  • Abbasi, A. and N. Kapucu (2012) “Structural Dynamics of Organizations during the Evolution of Interorganizational Networks in Disaster Response,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 9(1).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Abrahamsson, M., H. Hassel and H. Tehler (2010) “Towards a System‐Oriented Framework for Analysing and Evaluating Emergency Response,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 18(1):14–25.Google Scholar

  • Andrew, S. A. and J. B. Carr (2013) “Mitigating Uncertainty and Risk in Planning for Regional Preparedness: The Role of Bonding and Bridging Relationships,” Urban Studies, 50(4):709–724.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Berlin, J. M. and E. D. Carlström (2011) “Why is Collaboration Minimised at the Accident Scene?: A Critical Study of a Hidden Phenomenon,” Disaster Prevention and Management, 20(2):159–171.Google Scholar

  • Bigley, G. A. and K. H. Roberts (2001) “The Incident Command System: High-reliability Organizing for Complex and Volatile Task Environments,” The Academy of Management Journal, 44(6):1281–1299.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Borgatti, S. P. and D. S. Halgin (2011) “Analyzing Affiliation Networks.” In: (J. Scott and P. J. Carrington, eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis. London: SAGE, pp. 417–433.Google Scholar

  • Bosse, T., C. M. Jonker, L. van der Meij and J. Treur (2006) “A Language and Environment for Analysis of Dynamics by SimulaTion,” International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 20(10):1–31.Google Scholar

  • Butts, C., M. Petrescu-Prahova and B. R. Cross (2007) “Responder Communication Networks in the World Trade Center Disaster: Implications for Modeling of Communication within Emergency Settings,” Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 31(2):121–147.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Choi, S. O. and R. S. Brower (2006) “When Practice Matters More Than Government Plans – A Network Analysis of Local Emergency Management,” Administration & Society, 37(6): 651–678.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Comfort, L. K. (2007) “Crisis Management in Hindsight: Cognition, Communication, Coordination, and Control,” Public Administration Review, 67:189–197.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Comfort, L. K. and N. Kapucu (2006) “Inter-Organizational Coordination in Extreme Events: The World Trade Center Attacks, September 11, 2001,” National Hazards, 39:309–327.Google Scholar

  • Conti, N., and P. Doreian (2010) “Social Network Engineering and Race in a Police Academy: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Social Networks, 32(1):30–43.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Drabek, T. E., H. L. Tamminga, T. S. Kilijanek and C. R. Adams (1981) Managing Multiorganizational Emergency Responses: Emergent Search and Rescue Networks in Natural Disaster and Remote Area Settings. Boulder, CO: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.Google Scholar

  • Eckmann, J.-P., E. Moses and D. Sergi (2004) “Entropy of Dialogues Creates Coherent Structures in E-mail Traffic,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(40):14333–14337.Google Scholar

  • Everett, M. G. and S. P. Borgatti (2005) “Extending Centrality,” Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis, 35(1):57–76.Google Scholar

  • Gillespie, D. F. and S. A. Murty (1994) “Cracks in a Post Disaster Service Delivery Network,” American Journal of Community Psychology, 22(5):639–660.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Harris, J. K. and B. Clements (2007) “Using Social Network Analysis to Understand Missouri’s System of Public Health Emergency Planners,” Public Health Reports, 122(4):488–498.Google Scholar

  • Hensgen, T., K. C. Desouza and M. Durland (2006) “Initial Crisis Agent‐Response Impact Syndrome (ICARIS),” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14(4):190–198.Google Scholar

  • Hossain, L. and M. Kuti (2010) “Disaster Response Preparedness Coordination Through Social Networks,” Disasters, 34(3):755–786.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Houghton, R. J., C. Baber, R. McMaster, N. A. Stanton, P. Salmon and R. Stewart (2006) “Command and Control in Emergency Services Operations: a Social Network Analysis,” Ergonomics, 49(12–13):1204–1225.Google Scholar

  • Inspectorate of Security and Justice (2009) Calamity in the Schiphol Tunnel. Research Towards the Response to a Fire Call. IOOV, Den Haag.Google Scholar

  • Janssen, M., J. Lee, N. Bharosa and A. Cresswell (2010) “Advances in Multi-Agency Disaster Management: Key Elements in Disaster Research,” Information Systems Frontiers, 12(1):1–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kapucu, N. (2005) “Interorganizational Coordination in Dynamic Context: Networks in Emergency Response Management,” Connections, 26(2):33–48.Google Scholar

  • Kapucu, N. (2006) “Interagency Communication Networks During Emergencies: Boundary Spanners in Multiagency Coordination,” The American Review of Public Administration, 36(2):207–225.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kapucu, N. (2009) “Interorganizational Coordination in Complex Environments of Disasters: The Evolution of Intergovernmental Disaster Response Systems,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 6(1).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kapucu, N. (2011) “Collaborative Governance in International Disasters: Nargis Cyclone in Myanmar and Sichuan Earthquake in China Cases,”International Journal of Emergency Management, 8(1):1–25.Google Scholar

  • Kapucu, N. and F. Demiroz (2011) “Measuring Performance For Collaborative Public Management Using Network Analysis Methods And Tools,” Public Performance & Management Review, 34(4):549–579.Google Scholar

  • Kapucu, N. and V. Garayev (2013) “Designing, Managing, and Sustaining Functionally Collaborative Emergency Management Networks,” American Review of Public Administration, 43(3):312–330.Google Scholar

  • Kapucu, N., T. Arslan and M. L. Collins (2010) “Examining Intergovernmental and Interorganizational Response to Catastrophic Disasters: Toward a Network-Centered Approach,” Administration & Society, 42(2):222–247.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kapucu, N., T. Bryer, V. Garayev and T. Arslan (2010) “Interorganizational Network Coordination under Stress Caused by Repeated Threats of Disasters,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 7(1).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kim, K.D., L. Hossain and S. Uddin (2013) “Situated Response and Learning of Distributed Bushfire Coordinating Teams,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 10(1):1–17Google Scholar

  • Kossinets, G., J. Kleinberg and D. Watts (2008) “The Structure of Information Pathways in a Social Communication Network.” Proceeding of the 14th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ACM, New York.Google Scholar

  • Loosemore, M. and W. P. Hughes (2001) “Confronting Social Defence Mechanisms: Avoiding Disorganisation During Crises,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 9(2):73–87.Google Scholar

  • Mendonca, D. and W. A. Wallace (2004) “Studying Organizationally-Situated Improvisation in Response to Extreme Events,” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 22(2):5–30.Google Scholar

  • Militello, L. G., E. S. Patterson, L. Bowman and R. Wears (2007) “Information Flow During Crisis Management: Challenges to Coordination in the Emergency Operations Center,” Cognition, Technology & Work, 9(1):25–31.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Moody, J., D. McFarland and S. Bender-deMoll (2005) “Dynamic Network Visualization,”. American Journal of Sociology, 110(4):1206–1240.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Moore, S., E. Eng and M. Daniel (2003) “International NGOs and the Role of Network Centrality in Humanitarian Aid Operations: A Case Study of Coordination During the 2000 Mozambique Floods,” Disasters, 27(4):305–318.Google Scholar

  • Moynihan, D. P. (2008a) “Combining Structural Forms in the Search for Policy Tools: Incident Command Systems in US Crisis Management,” Governance, 21(2):205–229.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Moynihan, D. P. (2008b) “Learning Under Uncertainty: Networks in Crisis Management,” Public Administration Review, 68(2):350–365.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Moynihan, D. P. (2009) “The Network Governance of Crisis Response: Case Studies of Incident Command Systems,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 19(4):895–915.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Neal, D. M. and B. D. Phillips (1995) “Effective Emergency Management: Reconsidering the Bureaucratic Approach,” Disasters, 19(4):327–337.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • O’Toole, L. J. (1997) “Treating Networks Seriously: Practical and Research-Based Agenda’s in Public Administration,” Public Administration Review, 57(1):45–52.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Passenier, D., J. Molle, J. Wolbers, K. Boersma and P. Groenewegen (2012) “Formalization of Crisis Response Coordination from a Public Inquiry Report.” In: (L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej and Z. Franco, eds.). Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRAM. Vancouver, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar

  • Schraagen, J. M., M. H. Veld and L. De Koning (2010) “Information Sharing During Crisis Management in Hierarchical vs. Network Teams,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 18(2):117–127.Google Scholar

  • Topper, C. M. and K. M. Carley (1999) “A Structural Perspective on the Emergence of Network Organizations,” Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 24(1):67–96.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Uddin, S. and L. Hossain (2011) “Disaster Coordination Preparedness of Soft Target Organizations,” Disasters, 35(3):623–638.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Uhr, C. and H. Johansson (2007) “Mapping an Emergency Management Network,” International Journal of Emergency Management, 4(1):104–118.Google Scholar

  • Uhr, C., H. Johansson and L. Fredholm (2008) “Analysing Emergency Response Systems,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 16(2):80–90.Google Scholar

  • Vasavada, T. (2013) “Managing Disaster Networks in India A Study of Structure and Effectiveness,” Public Management Review, 15(3):363–382CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wassermann, S. and K. Faust (1994) Social Network Analysis: Methods and applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Waugh, W. L. and G. Streib (2006) “Collaboration and Leadership for Effective Emergency Management,” Public Administration Review, 66:131–140.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Jeroen Wolbers, Organization Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands, e-mail:


Published Online: 2013-09-24

Published in Print: 2013-10-01


Citation Information: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN (Online) 1547-7355, ISSN (Print) 2194-6361, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2013-0019.

Export Citation

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston. Copyright Clearance Center

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Jeroen Wolbers, Kees Boersma, and Peter Groenewegen
Organization Studies, 2017, Page 017084061771709
[2]
Chih-Hui Lai, Chen-Chao Tao, and Yu-Chung Cheng
VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 2017
[3]
Nadia Saad Noori and Christina Weber
Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 2016, Volume 6, Number 3, Page 296

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in