Aloysius, John (2013) “An Insider’s Critique of FEMA,” Daily Kos, April 9. Available at: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/04/09/1200363/-An-Insider-s-Critique-of-FEMA#.
Bergen, Peter (2008) “Safe at Home.” New York Times, December 14. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/14/opinion/14bergen.html.
Carafano, James J. and Richard Weitz (2006) “Learning from Disaster: The Role of Federalism and the Importance of Grassroots Response.” Backgrounder #1923 on Department of Homeland Security. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, March 21. Available at: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2006/03/learning-from-disaster-the-role-of-federalism-and-the-importance-of-grassroots-response.
Carafano, James J., Jessica Zuckerman, Matt A. Mayer, Paul Rosenzweig, and Brian Slattery (2013) The Second Quadrennial Homeland Security Review: Setting Priorities for the Next Four Years. “4. Refocusing FEMA on Truly Catastrophic Events.” Backgrounder #2766 on Homeland Security. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, February 12. Available at: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/02/the-second-quadrennial-homeland-security-review-setting-priorities-for-the-next-four-years.
Cohen, Charles and Eric Werker (2014) The Political Economy of “Natural” Disasters. Cambridge: Harvard Business School, June 2014. Available at: http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/08-040.pdf.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS). “Surge Capacity Force.” Available at: http://www.dhs.gov/topic/surge-capacity-force.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) (2008) “Remarks by Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff at Johns Hopkins University.” December 3. Available at: https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=233184.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) (2009) History Office. Brief Documentary History of the Department of Homeland Security: 2001–2008. Washington, DC. Available at: https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=37027.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) (2011) National Preparedness Goal. Washington, DC. Available at: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1828-25045-9470/national_preparedness_goal_2011.pdf.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) (2012) FY 2013 National Preparedness Grant Program Vision Document. Washington, DC: Grants Program Directorate, February 2012. Available at: https://www.fema.gov/pdf/government/grant/fy2013_npgp_grant_program_overview.pdf.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) (2013) Office of the Inspector General. FEMA’s Initial Response in New York to Hurricane Sandy. Washington, DC, September 2013. Available at: http://www.recovery.gov/Sandy/Documents/FEMA%20NY%20Initial%20Response%20to%20Sandy.pdf.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). “Inside FEMA: Working Side-by-Side with the Private Sector.” Available at: http://kyem.ky.gov/teams/Documents/06%20Private%20Sector%20Representative%20Program.PDF.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) “National Information Center Resource Management: Resource Management Overview.” Available at: https://www.fema.gov/national-incident-management-system/national-integration-center-resource-management, last updated 7/24/14.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2011a) FEMA Strategic Plan, Fiscal Years 2011–2014. Washington, DC, February 2011. Available at: https://www.fema.gov/txt/about/strategic_plan11.txt.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2011b) National Disaster Recovery Framework: Strengthening Disaster Recovery for the Nation. Washington, DC, September 2011. Available at: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/recoveryframework/ndrf.pdf.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2012) The State of FEMA: Leaning Forward: Go Big, Go Early, Go Fast, Be Smart. Washington, DC. Available at: https://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/state_of_fema/state_of_fema.pdf.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2013a) FEMA and Emergency Management: Looking Back, Moving Forward and Changing Outcomes, March 25. Available at: https://www.dhs.gov/blog/2013/03/25/fema-and-emergency-management-looking-back-moving-forward-and-changing-outcomes.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2013b) Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov). August 2013. Available at: https://www.llis.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/LLIS%20August%202013%20Newsletter_1.pdf.
Harrald, John R. (2006) “National Emergency Management: Where Does FEMA Belong?” Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Washington, DC, June 8. Available at: http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/hearings/national-emergency-management-where-does-fema-belong.
Holdeman, Eric (2012) “Do We Really Need FEMA? Yes and….” Emergency Management, October 31. Available at: http://www.emergencymgmt.com/emergency-blogs/disaster-zone/Do-we-really-need-fema_-yes-and-103112.html.
Iverson, Eric (2012) “The Uncertain Future of FEMA.” Report of Truman Project. Washington, DC, November 14. Available at: http://trumanproject.org/doctrine-blog/the-uncertain-future-of-fema/.
Kahan, Jerome H. (2014) “Preparedness Revisited: W(h)ither PPD-8.” Homeland Security Affairs, 10:Article 2 (February 2014). Available at: http://www.hsaj.org/?article=10.1.2.
Kaiser, Emily (2012) “Does America Still Need FEMA?” Daily Circuit, November 13. Available at: http://www.mprnews.org/story/2012/11/13/daily-circuit-is-fema-outdated-program.
Krueger, Alan B. (2005) “At FEMA, Disasters and Politics Go Hand in Hand,” New York Times, September 15. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/15/business/15scene.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
Lee, Bernice and Felix Preston, with Gemma Green (2012) Preparing for High-Impact, Low-Probability Events: Lessons from Eyjafjallajökull. London, England: Royal Institute of International Affairs, January 2012. Available at: http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/public/Research/Energy,%20Environment%20and%20Development/r0112_highimpact.pdf.
Mayer, Matt A. (2012) “Sandy’s a FEMA-Sized Event.” Heritage Foundation, October 30. Available at: http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2012/10/sandy-s-a-fema-sized-storm.
Mayer, Matt A., James Jay Calafano, and Jessica Zuckerman (2011) “Homeland Security 4.0: Overcoming Centralization, Complacency, and Politics.” Special Report #97 on Homeland Security. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, August 23. Available at: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/08/homeland-security-4-0-overcoming-centralization-complacency-and-politics.
Rasor, Dina (2012) “Forget the Election and the Politics: What Will Make FEMA Work for the People?” Truthout, November 1. Available at: http://truth-out.org/news/item/12444-forget-the-election-and-the-politics-what-will-make-fema-work-for-the-people.
Relyea, Harold C. and Henry B. Hogue (2005) Department of Homeland Security Reorganization: The 2SR Initiative. CRS Report RL33042. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service (CRS), Library of Congress. August 19. Available at: http://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33042.pdf.
Rosenzweig, Paul and Jessica Zuckerman (2013) “Napolitano Stays On: Five Key Steps for DHS in the Next Administration,” Issue Brief 3834. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, January 17. Available at: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/01/5-key-steps-for-homeland-security-as-napolitano-stays-on-in-dhs.
Schultz, John and John Vogel (2012) “FEMA Needs a New Approach to Disaster Relief.” U.S. News & World Report, October 15. Available at: http://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/economic-intelligence/2012/10/15/fema-needs-a-new-approach-to-disaster-relief.
Selves, Michael D. The Politics of Disaster (Principles for Local Emergency Managers and Elected Officials). Available at: http://tinyurl.com/n5kfqa7.
U.S. Government Accountability Office (2008) Actions Taken to Implement the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006. Washington, DC, November 21. Available at: http://www.gao.gov/assets/100/95880.pdf.
U.S. House of Representatives (2006) A Failure of Initiative: Final Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, February 15. Available at: http://www.uscg.mil/history/katrina/docs/USHouseOfRepKatrina2006MainR1eport.pdf.
U.S. House of Representatives (2010) The Future of FEMA’s Grant Programs Directorate, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response, Committee on Homeland Security. 111 Cong., 2nd sess. Washington, DC, June 29. Available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg64698/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg64698.pdf.
U.S. House of Representatives (2011) Five Years Later: An Assessment of the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act. Hearing before the House Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Communications, Committee on Homeland Security, 112 Cong., 1st sess. Washington, DC, October 25. Available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg73740/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg73740.pdf.
Vogel, Steve (2012) “Officials and Experts Praising FEMA for its Response to Hurricane Sandy.” Washington Post, November 1. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/bcsnune.
Werker, Charles and Cohen, Eric D. (2014) The Political Economy of “Natural” Disasters, June 2014. Available at: http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/08-040.pdf.
Zuckerman, Jessica (2012) “Debate over FEMA Disaster Aid: Federal vs. State and Local.” Daily Signal, November 1. Available at: http://dailysignal.com/2012/11/01/wall-street-journal-a-big-storm-requires-federalism-not-opportunism/.
About the article
Jerome Kahan is currently an independent writer and analyst. He was formerly a Distinguished Analyst at the Homeland Security Studies and Analysis Institute in Arlington, VA. Mr. Kahan has been in the national security, arms control, and homeland security fields for over 40 years – including 20 years with the Department of State, where he held positions on the Policy Planning Staff and as Deputy Assistant Secretary with the Political-Military and Intelligence Bureaus and served as Counselor at the American Embassy in Turkey. He worked for many years with non-governmental research organizations, including the Brookings Institution, the Center for Naval Analyses, and Systems Planning and Analysis. He has written and/or contributed to a number of books, published articles in a variety of journals, taught at the Air Force Academy, and served as an Adjunct Professor in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Mr. Kahan holds a Masters Degree in Electrical Engineering from Columbia University, with Bachelor’s Degrees from Queens as well as Columbia College. He has also been a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute of Strategic Studies.
Published Online: 2014-10-06
Published in Print: 2015-04-01