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Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management

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Estimated Time of Restoration (ETR) Guidance for Electric Distribution Networks

David Wanik / Emmanouil Anagnostou / Brian Hartman / Thomas Layton
  • Department of Emergency Response, Eversource Energy, Jacksonville, AL, USA
  • Department of Emergency Management, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-01-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2016-0063


Electric distribution utilities have an obligation to inform the public and government regulators about when they expect to complete service restoration after a major storm. In this study, we explore methods for calculating the estimated time of restoration (ETR) from weather impacts, defined as the time it will take for 99.5% of customers to be restored. Actual data from Storm Irene (2011), the October Nor’easter (2011) and Hurricane Sandy (2012) within the Eversource Energy-Connecticut service territory were used to calibrate and test the methods; data used included predicted outages, the peak number of customers affected, a ratio of how many outages a restoration crew can repair per day, and the count of crews working per day. Data known before a storm strikes (such as predicted outages and available crews) can be used to calculate ETR and support pre-storm allocation of crews and resources, while data available immediately after the storm passes (such as customers affected) can be used as motivation for securing or releasing crews to complete the restoration in a timely manner. Used together, the methods presented in this paper will help utilities provide a reasonable, data-driven ETR without relying solely on qualitative past experiences or instinct.

Keywords: electric reliability; ETR; outage; restoration; severe weather


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About the article

Published Online: 2018-01-30

Citation Information: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, Volume 15, Issue 1, 20160063, ISSN (Online) 1547-7355, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2016-0063.

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