Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity

Editor-in-Chief: Hall, Craig R. / Short, Sandra E.

1 Issue per year


CiteScore 2016: 0.40

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.296
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.199

Online
ISSN
1932-0191
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Examining the Feasibility of a Short Intervention for Improving Exercise Imagery Ability

Fredrik Weibull
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitaton Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jennifer Cumming
  • School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitaton Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sam J. Cooley
  • School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitaton Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sarah E. Williams
  • School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitaton Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Victoria E. Burns
  • School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitaton Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-09-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jirspa-2016-0008

Abstract

The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of combining layered stimulus response training (LSRT) with one week of imagery rehearsal on exercise imagery ability. Further aims were to investigate pre- to post-intervention changes in exercise related feeling states and interest/enjoyment, and determine if imagery ability at post-intervention was associated with these variables. Forty-five women aged 19 to 50 years (M = 30.53; SD = 10.08) performed LSRT and were randomly assigned to either rehearsal or no rehearsal conditions of an imagery script describing a brisk walk. Both groups significantly improved their ability to image different types of exercise imagery from pre- to post-intervention, but the rehearsal group improved their imagery accuracy significantly more than the control group. Both groups significantly improved on interest/enjoyment, physical exhaustion and positive engagement, but not revitalization or tranquility. For the rehearsal group, post-intervention exercise imagery ability correlated significantly and positively with post-intervention interest/enjoyment, positive engagement, and tranquility. Results indicate that it is feasible to improve exercise imagery ability through a brief imagery intervention and that this increase was associated with better affective responses to exercise.

Keywords: exercise imagery; imagery ability; intervention; layered stimulus response training

References

  • Andersson, E. K. & Moss, T. P. (2010). Imagery and implementation intention: A randomised controlled trial of interventions to increase exercise behaviour in the general population. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 63–70. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Anuar, N., Cumming, J. & Williams, S. E. (2015). Effects of applying the PETTLEP model on vividness and ease of imaging movement. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28, 185–198. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baddeley, A. D. & Andrade, J. (2000). Working memory and the vividness of imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 126–145. DOI:.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • British Heart Foundation. (2015). Physical Activity Statistics BFB,BFB. Available fromhttps://www.bhf.org.uk/.Google Scholar

  • Callow, N., Hardy, L. & Hall, C. (2001). The effect of a motivational-mastery imagery intervention on sport confidence of three elite badminton players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 389–400.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Calmels, C., Holmes, P., Berthoumieux, C. & Singer, R. N. (2004). The development of movement imagery vividness through a structured intervention in softball. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27, 307–322.Google Scholar

  • Chan, C. K. Y. & Cameron, L. D. (2012). Promoting physical activity with goal-oriented mental imagery: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 347–363. DOI:.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Collet, C., Guillot, A., Lebon, F., MacIntyre, T. & Moran, A. (2011). Measuring motor imagery: combining psychometric, qualitative, chronometric, and psychophysiological techniques. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 39, 89–92.Google Scholar

  • Colley, R. C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Craig, C. L., Clarke, J. & Tremblay, M. C. (2011). Physical activity of Canadian adults: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Reports, 22, 7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Cooley, S. J., Williams, S. E., Burns, V. E. & Cumming, J. (2013). Methodological variations in guided imagery interventions using movement imagery scripts in sport: A systematic review. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical activity, 8, 1–22. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cumming, J. (2008). Investigating the relationship between exercise imagery, leisure-time exercise behavior, and self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 20, 184–198. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cumming, J., Cooley, S. J., Anuar, N., Kosteli, M., Quinton, M. L., Weibull, F. & Williams, S. E. (2016). Developing Imagery Ability Effectively: A Guide to Layered Stimulus Response Training. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action,. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cumming, J. & Ramsey, R. (2009). Imagery interventions in sport. Mellalieu, S. D. & S. Hanton (Eds.), Advances in applied sport psychology: A review (pp. 5–36). London: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Cumming, J. & Stanley, D. M. (2009). Are Images of Exercising Related to Feeling States? Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 4.1, 5. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cumming, J. L. & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2001). Th e cognitive and motivational eff ects of imagery training: A matter of perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 15, 276–287.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cumming, J. & Williams, S. E. (2012). The role of imagery in performance. Murphy, S. (Ed.), Handbook of sport and performance psychology (pp. 213–232). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Cumming, J. & Williams, S. E. (2013). Introducing the revised applied model of deliberate imagery use for sport, dance, exercise, and rehabilitation. Movement and Sport Sciences, 82(4), 69–81. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Denis, M. (1985). Visual imagery and the use of mental practice in the development of motor skills. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 4–16.Google Scholar

  • Diamantopoulos, A., Sarstedt, M., Fuchs, C., Wilczynski, P. & Kaiser, S. (2012). Guidelines for choosing between multi-item and single-item scales for construct measurement: A predictive validity perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40, 434–449. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dishman, R. (2001). The problem of exercise adherence: Fighting sloth in nations with market economies. Quest., 53, 279–294.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Duncan, L. R., Hall, C. R., Wilson, P. M. & Rodgers, W. M. (2012). The use of a mental imagery intervention to enhance integrated regulation for exercise among women commencing an exercise program. Motivation & Emotion, 36, 452–464. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gammage, K. L., Hall, C. R. & Rodgers, W. M. (2000). More about exercise imagery. The Sport Psychologist, 14. 348.359.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gauvin, L. & Rejeski, W. J. (1993). The exercise-induced feeling inventory: Development and initial validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 403–423.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Giacobbi, P. R., Hausenblas, H. A. & Penfield, R. (2005). Further developments in the measurement of exercise imagery: The exercise imagery inventory. Measurement in Physical Education and the Exercise Sciences, 9, 251–266. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Godin, G. (2011). Commentary: The Godin-Shephard leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Health and Fitness Journal of Canada, 4, 18–22.Google Scholar

  • Godin, G. & Shephard, R. J. (1985). Psycho-social predictors of exercise intentions among spouses. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 36–43.Google Scholar

  • Greenhouse, S. W. & Geisser, S. (1959). On methods in the analysis of profile data. Psychometrika, 24, 95–112.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Haase, A., Steptoe, A., Sallis, J. F. & Wardle, J. (2004). Leisure time physical activity in university students from 23 countries: Associations with health beliefs, risk awareness and national economic development. Preventive Medicine, 39, 182–190.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hall, C. (1998). Measuring imagery abilities and imagery use. Duda, J. L. (Ed.), Advances in Sport and Exercise Psychology Measurement (pp. 165–172). Fitness Information Technology. Morgantown, WV.Google Scholar

  • Hall, C. & Martin, K. A. (1997). Measuring movement imagery abilities: A revision of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire. Journal of Mental Imagery, 21, 143–154.Google Scholar

  • Hausenblas, H. A., Hall, C. R., Rodgers, W. M. & Munroe, K. J. (1999). Exercise imagery: Its nature and measurement. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 171–180.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hoeppner, B. B., Kelly, J. F., Urbanoski, K. A. & Slaymaker, V. (2011). Comparative utility of a single-item versus multiple-item measure of self-efficacy in predicting relapse among young adults. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 41, 305–312. 10.1016/j.jsat.2011.04.005.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Jacobs, D. R., Ainsworth, B. E., Hartman, T. J. & Leon, A. S. (1993). A simultaneous evaluation of ten commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 81–91.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jones, F., Harris, P., Waller, H. & Coggins, A. (2005). Adherence to an exercise prescription scheme: The role of expectations, self-efficacy, stage of change and psychological well-being. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 359–378.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kim, B. H. & Giacobbi, P. R. (2009). The use of exercise-related mental imagery by middle aged adults. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 4, 1–38.Google Scholar

  • Kim, B. H., Newton, R. A., Sachs, M. L., Giacobbi, P. R. & Glutting, J. J. (2011). The effect of guided relaxation and exercise imagery on self-reported leisure-time exercise behaviors in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 19, 137–146.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lang, P. J. (1979). A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16, 495–512.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Lee, I., Shiroma, E. J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S. N. & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet, 380, 219–229. DOI:.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • McAuley, E., Duncan, T. & Tammen, V. V. (1989). Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60, 48–58.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Moran, A. (1993). Conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of mental imagery skills. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 16, 156–170.Google Scholar

  • Morris, T., Spittle, M. & Watt, A. P. (2005). Imagery in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar

  • Murphy, S. (1994). Imagery interventions in sport. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 486–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Nordin, S. M. & Cumming, J. (2005). More than meets the eye: Investigating imagery type, direction, and outcome. The Sport Psychologist, 19, 1–17.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nunnally, J. O. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar

  • Orrow, G., Kinmonth, A. L., Sanderson, S. & Sutton, S. (2012). Effectiveness of physical activity promotion based in primary care: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Medicine Journal, 344, 1389. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Reed, Justy & Ones, Deniz S. (2006). The effect of acute aerobic exercise on positive activated affect: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(5), 477–514. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rhodes, R. E. & Kates, A. (2015). Can the affective response to exercise predict future motives and physical activity behavior? A systematic review of published evidence. Annals of Behavior, 49(5), 715–731. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Roberts, R., Callow, N., Hardy, L., Markland, D. & Bringer, J. (2008). Movement imagery ability: Development and assessment of a revised version of the vividness of movement imagery questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 200–221.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Robin, N., Dominique, L., Toussaint, L., Blandin, Y., Guillot, A. & Le Her, M. (2007). Effects of motor imagery training on service return accuracy in tennis: The role of imagery ability. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2, 175–186. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rodgers, W., Hall, C. & Buckolz, E. (1991). The effect of an imagery training program on imagery ability, imagery use, and figure skating performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 3, 109–125.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ryan, R. M. (1982). Control and information in the intrapersonal sphere: An extension of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 450–461.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Short, S. E., Hall, C. R., Engel, S. R. & Nigg, C. R. (2004). Exercise imagery and the stages of change. Journal of Mental Imagery, 28(1 & 2), 61–78.Google Scholar

  • Sjöström, M., Oja, P., Hagströmer, M., Smith, B. & Bauman, A. (2006). Health-enhancing physical activity across European Union countries: The Eurobarometer study. Journal of Public Health, 14, 291–300. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stanley, D. M. & Cumming, J. (2010a). Are we having fun yet? Testing the effects of imagery use on the affective and enjoyment responses to acute moderate exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 582–590. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stanley, D. M. & Cumming, J. (2010b). Not just how one feels, but what one images? The effects of imagery use on affective responses to moderate exercise. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8, 343–359. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wanner, M., Götschi, T., Martin-Diener, E., Kahlmeier, S. & Martin, B. W. (2012). Active transport, physical activity, and body weight in adults: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42, 493–502.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Watt, A. P., Morris, T & Andersen, M. B. (2004). Issues in the development of a measure of imagery ability in sport. Journal of Mental Imagery, 28, 149–180.Google Scholar

  • Weibull, F., Cumming, J., Cooley, S. J., Williams, S. E. & Burns, V. E. (2014). Walk this Way: A Brief Exercise Imagery Intervention Increases Barrier Self-Efficacy in Women. Current Psychology,. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Williams, S. E. & Cumming, J. (2011). Measuring athlete imagery ability: The Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 416–440.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Williams, S. E., Cooley, S. J., & Cumming, J. (2013). Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and motor execution. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 60–71. DOI:.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Williams, S. E., Cumming, J & Balanos, G. M. (2010). The use of imagery to manipulate challenge and threat appraisal states in athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32, 339–358. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • World Health Organisation. (2011a). Data and statistics. WHO. Available from WHO;http://www.who.int/research/en/.Google Scholar

  • World Health Organisation. (2011b). Risk factors. Data and statistics. WHO. Available from WHO;http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/en/index.html.Google Scholar

  • Wright, D. J., McCormick, S. A., Birks, S., Loporto, M. & Holmes, P. S. (2014). Action observation and imagery training improve the ease with which athletes can generate imagery. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 27, 156–170. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2017-09-22


Citation Information: Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, Volume 12, Issue 1, 20160008, ISSN (Online) 1932-0191, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jirspa-2016-0008.

Export Citation

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston. Copyright Clearance Center

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in