Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Intelligent Systems

Editor-in-Chief: Fleyeh, Hasan

CiteScore 2018: 1.03

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.188
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.533

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 27, Issue 1


A Novel Scene-Based Video Watermarking Scheme for Copyright Protection

Dolley Shukla
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Information Technology, Shri Shankaracharya Technical Campus, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Manisha Sharma
  • Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-06-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jisys-2017-0039


Many illegal copies of original digital videos are being made, as they can be replicated perfectly through the Internet. Thus, it is extremely necessary to protect the copyrights of the owner and prevent illegal copying. This paper presents a novel approach to digital video watermarking for copyright protection using two different algorithms, whereby successive estimation of a statistical measure was used to detect scene boundaries and watermark was embedded in the detected scenes with discrete wavelet transform. Haar wavelet was used for decomposition. For embedding, the approaches used were (i) the detailed subband (LH subband) and (ii) the approximate subband (LL subband) of the cover video. Imperceptibility, robustness, and channel capacity were measured using both algorithms. The system was tested for robustness in the presence of 15 different attacks of five different categories, and, under multiple attacks, ensured that a wide spectrum of attack analysis has been done. The performance metrics measured included mean square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity index, normalized correlation, and bit error rate. The experimental results demonstrated the better visual imperceptibility and improved performance in terms of normalized correlation and bit error rate with embedding using the LL subband. Comparative analysis with existing schemes proved the improved robustness, better imperceptibility, and reduced computational time of both the proposed schemes.

Keywords: Video watermarking; scene change detector; frame; histogram difference; robustness; watermark attack


  • [1]

    L. Agilandeeswari and K. Ganesan, A robust color video watermarking scheme based on hybrid embedding techniques, Multimed. Tools Appl. 75 (2016), 8745–8780.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2]

    R. Ahuja and S. S. Bedi, Copyright protection using blind video watermarking algorithm based on mpeg-2 structure, In: International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA2015), Greater Noida, UP, India, 15–16 May, pp. 1048–1053, IEEE, 2015.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    M. Ali, C. W. Ahn and M. Pant, A robust image watermarking technique using SVD and differential evolution in DCT domain, Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Optics 125 (2014), 428–434.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    M. Barni, F. Bartolini, R. Caldelli, A. D. Rosa and A. Piva, A robust watermarking approach for raw video, In: Proc. 10th International Packet Video Workshop, PV2000, 2000.Google Scholar

  • [5]

    P. Campisi, D. Kundur and A. Neri, Robust digital watermarking in the ridgelet domain, IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11 (2004), 826–830.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, A. M. Tekalp and E. Saber, Lossless generalized-LSB data embedding, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14 (2005), 253–266.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    P. Chandrakar and S. G. Qureshi, A DWT based video watermarking using random frame selection, Int. J. Res. Advent Technol. 3 (2015), 39–44.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    I. Cox, M. Miller, J. Bloom, J. Fridrich and T. Kalker, Digital Watermarking and Steganography, Morgan Kaufmann, 2007.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    C. Cruz-Ramos, R. Reyes-Reyes, M. Nakano-Miyatake and H. Pérez-Meana, A blind video watermarking scheme robust to frame attacks combined with MPEG2 compression, J. Appl. Res. Technol. 8 (2010), 323–337.Google Scholar

  • [10]

    N. V. Dharwadkar and B. B. Amberker, Secure watermarking scheme for color image using intensity of pixel and LSB substitution, arXiv preprint arXiv:0912.3923 (2009). Available: http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0912/0912.3923.pdf, Accessed November 2010.

  • [11]

    N. K. Dubey and S. Kumar, A review of watermarking application in digital cinema for piracy deterrence, In: 2014 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, Bhopal, India, 7–9 April, pp. 626–230, 2014.Google Scholar

  • [12]

    P. Ghosh, R. Ghosh, S. Sinha, U. Mukhopadhyay, D. K. Kole and A. Chakroborty, A novel digital watermarking technique for video copyright protection, In: International Conference of Advanced Computer Science & Information Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India, 2012. DOI: 10.5121/csit.2012.2360.Google Scholar

  • [13]

    S. Haohao, Contourlet based adaptive watermarking for color images, IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. 92 (2009), 2171–2174.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    I. G. Karybali and K. Berberidis, Efficient spatial image watermarking via new perceptual masking and blind detection schemes, IEEE Trans. Inform. Forens. Secur. 1 (2006), 256–274. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stam.jsp?arnumber=01634366, Accessed October 2010.Crossref

  • [15]

    H. Kelkoul and Y. Zaz, Digital cinema watermarking state of art and comparison, World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. Int. J. Comput. Elect. Autom. Control Inform. Eng. 11 (2017), 2017.Google Scholar

  • [16]

    D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, A robust digital image watermarking method using wavelet-based fusion, In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing 1997, California, USA, October 26–29, Vol. 1, pp. 544–547, IEEE, October 1997. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=andarnumber=647970, Accessed November 2010.Crossref

  • [17]

    G. Langelaar, I. Setyawan and R. Lagendijk, Watermarking digital image and video data, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17 (2000), 20–43.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    N. Leelavathy, E. V. Prasad and S. S. Kumar, A scene based video watermarking in discrete multiwavelet domain, Int. J. Multidiscipl. Sci. Eng. 3 (2012) 12–16.Google Scholar

  • [19]

    M. Masoumi and S. Amiri, A blind scene-based watermarking for video copyright protection, AEU – Int. J. Electron. Commun. 67 (2013), 528–535.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    D. P. Mukherjee, S. Maitra and S. T. Acton, Spatial domain digital watermarking of multimedia objects for buyer authentication, IEEE Trans. Multimed. 6 (2004), 1–15. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=andarnumber=1261883, Accessed August 2011.Crossref

  • [21]

    A. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, Asymptotically optimal detection for additive watermarking in the DCT and DWT domains, IEEE Trans. Image Processing 12 (2003), 563–571.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [22]

    X. Niu and S. Sun, A new wavelet based digital watermarking for video, In: Proc. IEEE Digital Signal Processing Workshop, 2000.Google Scholar

  • [23]

    M. Ouhsain and A. B. Hamza, Image watermarking scheme using nonnegative matrix factorization and wavelet transform, Expert Syst. Appl. 36 (2009), 2123–2129.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [24]

    R. Pandey, A. K. Singh and B. Kumar, Iris based secure NROI multiple eye image watermarking for teleophthalmology, Multimed. Tools Appl. 75 (2015), 14381–14397.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    A. Phadikar, S. P. Maity and H. Rahaman, Region specific spatial domain image watermarking scheme, In: Advance Computing Conference, 2009, IACC, USA, March 2009, pp. 888–893, IEEE International, 2009. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=04809133, Accessed July 2015.

  • [26]

    S. Ranjbar, F. Zargari and M. Ghanbari, A highly robust two-stage contourlet-based digital image watermarking method, Signal Process. Image Commun. 28 (2013), 1526–1536.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    S. Roy and A. K. Pal, A robust blind hybrid image watermarking scheme in the RDWT-DCT domain using Arnold scrambling, Multimed. Tools Appl. 76 (2016), 1–40.Google Scholar

  • [28]

    C. Serdean, M. Ambroze, M. Tomlinson and G. Wade, Combating geometrical attacks in a DWT based blind video watermarking system, In: Proc. Eurasip – IEEE VIPPromCom, pp. 263–266, 2002.Google Scholar

  • [29]

    A. Sharma, A. K. Singh, and S. P. Ghrera, Robust and secure multiple watermarking technique for medical images, Wireless Pers. Commun. 92 (2017), 1611–1624.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30]

    D. K. Shaveta, Attack resistant robust video watermarking using scaled wavelet transform with SVD-DCT techniques, Int. J. Modern Comput. Sci. 3 (2015). Available: https://www.ijeat.org/v6i3.php.

  • [31]

    D. Shukla and M. Sharma, Performance evaluation of video watermarking system using discrete wavelet transform for four subband, In: International Conference on Cyber Security (ICCS) 2016, held at Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, August 13–14, 2016.Google Scholar

  • [32]

    A. K. Singh, Improved hybrid algorithm for robust and imperceptible multiple watermarking using digital images, Multimed. Tools Appl. (2016), DOI: 10.1007/s11042-016-3514-z.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [33]

    K. Su, D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, A novel approach to collusion-resistant video watermarking, In: SPIE Proc. 4675, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Content IV, pp. 491–502, 2002.Google Scholar

  • [34]

    T. M. Thanh, P. T. Hiep, T. M. Tam and K. Tanaka, Robust semi-blind video watermarking based on frame-patch matching, AEU – Int. J. Electron. Commun. 68 (2014), 1007–1015.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [35]

    R. B. Wolfgang, C. I. Podilchuk and E. J. Delp, Perceptual watermarks for digital images and video, Proc. IEEE 87 (1999), 1108–1126.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36]

    C. Wu, W. P. Zhu and M. N. Swamy, A watermark embedding scheme in wavelet transform domain, In: TENCON, IEEE Region 10 Conference Proceedings A, Chiang Mai, 21–24 November, pp. 279–282, 2004.Google Scholar

  • [37]

    A. Zear, A. K. Singh and P. Kumar, A proposed secure multiple watermarking technique based on DWT, DCT and SVD for application in medicine, Multimed. Tools Appl. (2016), 1–20. DOI: 10.1007/s11042-016-3862-8.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [38]

    A. Zear, A. K. Singh and P. Kumar, Multiple watermarking for healthcare applications, J. Intell. Syst. 27 (2018), 5–18.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Dolley Shukla, Associate Professor, Department of Information Technology, Shri Shankaracharya Technical Campus, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India

Received: 2017-02-01

Published Online: 2017-06-30

Published in Print: 2018-01-26

Citation Information: Journal of Intelligent Systems, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 47–66, ISSN (Online) 2191-026X, ISSN (Print) 0334-1860, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jisys-2017-0039.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Zied Kricha, Anis Kricha, and Anis Sakly
Security and Communication Networks, 2018, Volume 2018, Page 1

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in