K. J. Nilssen, H. K. Johnsen, A. Rognmo and A. S. Blix, Heart rate and energy expenditure in resting and running svalbard and norwegian reindeer, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 246 (1984), no. 6, R963–R967.Google Scholar
 I. Moote, The thermal insulation of caribou pelts, Text. Res. J. 25 (1955), no. 10, 832–837.Google Scholar
 J. Timisjärvi, M. Nieminen and A.-L. Sippola, The structure and insulation properties of the reindeer fur, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A: Physiol. 79 (1984), no. 4, 601–609.Google Scholar
 H. Johnsen, A. Rognmo, K. Nilssen and A. Blix, Seasonal changes in the relative importance of different avenues of heat loss in resting and running reindeer, Acta Physiol. Scand. 123 (1985), no. 1, 73–79.Google Scholar
 L. P. Folkow and J. B. Mercer, Partition of heat loss in resting and exercising winter-and summer-insulated reindeer, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 251 (1986), no. 1, R32–R40.Google Scholar
 A. S. Blix and H. K. Johnsen, Aspects of nasal heat exchange in resting reindeer, J. Physiol. 340 (1983), no. 1, 445–454.Google Scholar
 K. Schmidt-Nielsen, F. R. Hainsworth and D. E. Murrish, Counter-current heat exchange in the respiratory passages: effect on water and heat balance, Respir. Physiol. 9 (1970), no. 2, 263–276.Google Scholar
 A. Blix, H. Johnsen and J. Mercer, On nasal heat-exchange and the structural basis for its regulation in reindeer, J. Physiol.-London 343 (1983), 108–109.Google Scholar
 H. K. Johnsen, Nasal heat exchange: an experimental study of effector mechanisms associated with respiratory heat loss in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), Ph.D. thesis, 1988.Google Scholar
 I. L. Casado Barroso, The ontogeny of nasal heat exchange structures in arctic artiodactyles (2014).
 M. C. Wika, J. O. Krog and R. Hol, Vascular structure in the nasal cavity of reindeer, in: The Peripheral Circulation: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Peripheral Circulation (Newport, Sydney, September 5–6, 1983), vol. 630, p. 161, Excerpta Medica, 1984.
 S. Kjelstrup, M.-O. Coppens, J. Pharoah and P. Pfeifer, Nature-inspired energy-and material-efficient design of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, Energy Fuels 24 (2010), no. 9, 5097–5108.Google Scholar
 A. Zlotorowicz, K. Jayasayee, P. Dahl, M. Thomassen and S. Kjelstrup, Tailored porosities of the cathode layer for improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell performance, J. Power Sources 287 (2015), 472–477.Google Scholar
 E. Johannessen and S. Kjelstrup, A highway in state space for reactors with minimum entropy production, Chem. Eng. Sci. 60 (2005), no. 12, 3347–3361.Google Scholar
 S. Kjelstrup and D. Bedeaux, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics of Heterogeneous Systems, Singapore: World Scientific, 2008.
 Ø. Wilhelmsen, E. Johannessen and S. Kjelstrup, Energy efficient reactor design simplified by second law analysis, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 35 (2011), 13219–13231.Google Scholar
 D. Elad, M. Wolf and T. Keck, Air-conditioning in the human nasal cavity, Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 163 (2008), no. 1, 121–127.Google Scholar
 F. Castro, T. Parra, C. Quispe and P. Castro, Numerical simulation of the performance of a human nasal cavity, Engin. Comput. 28 (2011), no. 6, 638–653.Google Scholar
 J. Collins, T. Pilkington and K. Schmidt-Nielsen, A model of respiratory heat transfer in a small mammal, Biophys. J. 11 (1971), no. 11, 886–914.Google Scholar
 H. K. Johnsen, A. S. Blix, L. Jorgensen and J. B. Mercer, Vascular basis for regulation of nasal heat exchange in reindeer, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 249 (1985), no. 5, R617–R623.Google Scholar
 H. A. Jakobsen, Chemical reactor modeling, in: Multiphase Reactive Flows, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany (2008).
 Ø. Wilhelmsen, D. Bedeaux and S. Kjelstrup, Heat and mass transfer through interfaces of nanosized bubbles/droplets: the influence of interface curvature, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16 (2014), 10573.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
 Ø. Wilhelmsen, T. T. Trinh, S. Kjelstrup, T. S. van Erp and D. Bedeaux, Heat and mass transfer across interfaces in complex nanogeometries, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015), no. Feb, 065901.Google Scholar
 L. Onsager, Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes. II., Phys. Rev. 38 (1931), no. Dec, 2265–2279.Google Scholar
 Ø. Wilhelmsen, T. T. Trinh, A. Lervik, V. K. Badam, S. Kjelstrup and D. Bedeaux, Coherent description of transport across the water interface: From nanodroplets to climate models, Phys. Rev. E 93 (2016), no. Mar, 032801.Google Scholar
 J. Wen, K. Inthavong, Z. Tian, J. Tu, C. Xue and C. Li, Airflow patterns in both sides of a realistic human nasal cavity for laminar and turbulent conditions, in: 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference (AFMC), School of Engineering, The University of Queensland (2007), 68–74.
 Y. A. Cengel and J. Hernán Pérez, Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach, McGraw-Hill, México, 2004.Google Scholar
 P. Zamankhan, G. Ahmadi, Z. Wang, P. K. Hopke, Y.-S. Cheng, W. C. Su, et al., Airflow and deposition of nano-particles in a human nasal cavity, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40 (2006), no. 6, 463–476.Google Scholar
 S. Ishikawa, T. Nakayama, M. Watanabe and T. Matsuzawa, Visualization of flow resistance in physiological nasal respiration: analysis of velocity and vorticities using numerical simulation, Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132 (2006), no. 11, 1203–1209.Google Scholar
 A. S. Blix, L. Walløe and L. P. Folkow, Regulation of brain temperature in winter-acclimatized reindeer under heat stress, J. Exp. Biol. 214 (2011), no. 22, 3850–3856.Google Scholar
 K. Ivanov, M. Kalinina and Y. Levkovich, Blood flow velocity in capillaries of brain and muscles and its physiological significance, Microvasc. Res. 22 (1981), no. 2, 143–155.Google Scholar
 J. Chato, Heat transfer to blood vessels, J. Biomech. Eng. 102 (1980), no. 2, 110–118.Google Scholar
 M. M. Chen and K. R. Holmes, Microvascular contributions in tissue heat transfer, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 335 (1980), no. 1, 137–150.Google Scholar
 C. Ince, A.-M. van Kuijen, D. M. Milstein, K. Yürük, L. P. Folkow, W. J. Fokkens, et al., Why Rudolph’s nose is red: observational study, BMJ 345 (2012), e8311.Google Scholar
 S. Gheorghiu, S. Kjelstrup, P. Pfeifer and M.-O. Coppens, Is the lung an optimal gas exchanger?, in: Fractals in Biology and Medicine, Springer (2005), 31–42.
About the article
Published Online: 2016-07-14
Published in Print: 2017-01-01