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For the sake of illustration, let the number of epicatalytically active surface sites on S1 and S2 be ${\mathit{\sigma}}_{\ast}={10}^{16}\text{\u2008}{\text{m}}^{-2}$ and the reaction energy be $\mathrm{\Delta}\mathit{E}=0.5\text{\u2008}\text{eV}=8\times {10}^{-19}\text{\u2008}\text{J}$, typical of hydrogen-bonded dimers like methanol and formic acid [37]. Let the average cycling time ${\mathit{\tau}}_{\mathit{c}}$ be the thermal transit time for room-temperature 100 amu molecules (typical for volatile species) to cross the S1–S2 gap of thickness 10^{−6} m, that is, ${\mathit{\tau}}_{\mathit{c}}\simeq \frac{{\mathit{x}}_{\mathit{g}}}{{\mathit{v}}_{\mathit{t}\mathit{h}}}\simeq {10}^{-8}\text{\u2008}\mathrm{s}$. With these, the areal power density for the STG device is estimated to be $\mathcal{P}\simeq {10}^{6}\text{\u2008}{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{/}\mathrm{m}}^{2}$. This, of course, will be reduced by unavoidable convective, radiative, and conductive backflows.

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