Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Geodetic Science

Editor-in-Chief: Eshagh, Mehdi

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Unification of European height system realizations

A. Rülke / G. Liebsch / M. Sacher / U. Schäfer / U. Schirmer / J. Ihde
Published Online: 2013-01-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10156-011-0048-1


A suitable representation of the regional gravity field is used to estimate relative offsets between national height system realizations in Europe. The method used is based on a gravimetric approach and benefits from the significant improvements in the determination of the global gravity field by the recent satellite gravity missions the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorerr (GOCE). The potential of these missions for the unification of height reference frames is analyzed in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution. The results of the gravimetric approach are compared to the independent results of the geodetic leveling approach. Advantages and drawbacks of both methods are discussed.

Keywords : gravity field models; height reference frame unification; vertical reference systems; spirit leveling

  • Ardalan A. and Safari A., 2005, Global height datum unification: a new approach in gravity potential space, J Geod 79, 512-523, doi: 10.1007/s00190-005-0001-0.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Burša M., Kenyon S., Kouba J., Šíma Z., Vatrt V. and Voojtíšková M., 2004, A Global Vertical Reference Frame Based on Four Regional Vertical Datums, Stud Geophys Geod 48, 493-502, doi: 10.1023/B:SGEG.0000037468.48585.e6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Burša M., Kouba J., Müller A., Raděj K., True S.A., Vatrt V. and Voojtíšková M., 2001, Determination of Geopotential Differences between Local Vertical Datums and Realization of a World Height System, Stud Geophys Geod 45, 127-132, doi: 10.1023/A:1021860126850.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Christie R.R., 1994, A new geodetic heighting strategy for Great Britain, Surv Rev 32, 328-343.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Denker H., 2013, Regional gravity field modeling: theory and practical results, Sciences of Geodesy - II (Xu, G., ed.), Springer, 185-291, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-28000-9_5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Drinkwater M.R., Floberghagen R., Haagmans R., Muzi D. and Popescu A., 2003, GOCE: ESA’s first Earth Explorer Core mission, Earth Gravity Field from Space - from Sensors to Earth Sciences (Beutler G.B., Drinkwater M.R., Rummel R., and von Steiger R., ed.), Kluwer, 18, 419-432.Google Scholar

  • Ekman M., Impacts of geodynamic phenomena on systems of height and gravity, 1989, Bull Géod 63, 281-296.Google Scholar

  • Featherstone W.E., 2000, Towards the unification of the Australian height datum between the mainland and Tasmania using GPS and AUSGeoid98, Geom Res Australasia, 33-54.Google Scholar

  • Gatti A., Reguzzoni M. and Venuti G., 2012, The height datum problem and the role of satellite gravity models, J Geod, 1-8, doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0574-3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Greaves M., Hipkin R., Calvert C., Fane C., Rebischung P., Duquenne F., Harmel A., Coulomb A. and Duquenne H., 2007, Connection of British and French levelling networks, EUREF2007 Symposium, June 6-9 2007, London.Google Scholar

  • Ihde J. and Sánchez L., 2005, A unified global height reference system as a basis for IGGOS, J Geodyn 40, 400-413, doi: 10.1016/j.jog.2005.06.015.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kenyeres A., Sacher M., Ihde J., Denker H. and Marti U., 2010, EUVN_DA: Realization of the European Continental GPS/leveling Network, Gravity, Geoid and Earth Observation (Mertikas S.P., ed.), IAG Symposia 135, Springer, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-10634-7_41, pp. 315-320.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mayer-Gürr T., Rieser D., Höck E., Brockmann J.M., Schuh W.-D., Krasbutter I., Kusche J., Maier A., Krauss S., Hausleitner W., Baur O., Jäggi A., Meyer U., Prange L., Pail R., Fecher T., Gruber T., 2012 2012, The new combined satellite only model GOCO03s, GGHS2012, October 9-12 2012, Venice, Italy.Google Scholar

  • Pail R., Goiginger H., Schuh W.-D., Höck E., Brockmann J.M., Fecher T., Gruber T., Mayer-Gürr T., Kusche J., Jäggi A. and Rieser D., 2010, Combined satellite gravity field model GOCO01S derived from GOCE and GRACE, Geophys Res Lett 37, L20314, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044906.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pail R., Bruinsma S., Migliaccio F., Förste C., Goiginger H., Schuh W.-D., Höck E., Reguzzoni M., Brockmann J.-M., Abrikosov O., Veicherts M., Fecher T., Mayrhofer R., Krasbutter I., Sansó F. and Tscherning C., 2011, First GOCE gravity field models derived by three different approaches, J Geod 85, 819-843, doi: 10.1007/s00190-011-0467-x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pan M. and Sjöberg L.E., 1998, Unification of vertical datums by GPS and gravimetric geoid models with application to Fennoscandia, J Geod 72, 64-70, doi: 10.1007/s001900050149.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pavlis N.K., Holmes S.A., Kenyon S.C. and Factor J.K., 2012, The development and evaluation of the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), J Geophys Res 117, B04406, doi:10.1029/2011JB008916.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rapp R.H., 1995, A World Vertical Datum Proposal, AVN, 197-304.Google Scholar

  • Reigber C., Luehr H. and Schwintzer P., 2002, CHAMP Mission Status, Adv Space Res 30, 129-134.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rülke A., Dietrich R., Fritsche M., Rothacher M. and Steigenberger P., 2008, Realization of the Terrestrial Reference System by a reprocessed global GPS network, J Geophys Res 113, B08403, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005231.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rülke A., Liebsch G., Schäfer U., Schirmer U. and Ihde J., 2012, Geoid determination in Central Europe based on terrestrial data and GOCE observations, Geophys Res Abstr 14, EGU2012-4974.Google Scholar

  • Rummel R., 2002, Global Unification of Height Systems and GOCE, in: Gravity, Geoid and Geodynamics 2000 (Sideris M.G., ed.), IAG Symposia 123, Springer, 13-20.Google Scholar

  • Rummel R. and Ilk K.H., 1995, Height datum connection - the ocean part, AVN 8-9, 321-330.Google Scholar

  • Rummel R. and Teunissen P., 1988, Height datum definition, height datum connection and the role of the geodetic boundary value problem, Bull Géod 62, 477-498.Google Scholar

  • Sacher M., Ihde J., Liebsch G. and Mäkinen J., 2009, EVRF2007 as realization of the European Vertical Reference System, B Geod Sci Aff 68, 35-50.Google Scholar

  • Sánchez L., 2009, Strategy to Establish a Global Vertical Reference System, Geodetic Reference Frames (Drewes H., ed.), IAG Symposia 134, Springer, 273-278.Google Scholar

  • Sansó F. and Venuti G., 2002, The height datum/geodetic datum problem, Geophys J Int 149, 768-775, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-246X.2002.01680.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tapley B.D., Bettadpur S., Watkins M. and Reigber C., 2004, The gravity recovery and climate experiment - Mission overview and realy results, Geophys Res Lett 31, L09607, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019920.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wessel P. and Smith W.H.F., 1991, Free software helps map and display data, EOS Trans AGU 72, 441.Google Scholar

  • Xu P., 1992, A quality investigation of global vertical datum connection, Geophys J Int 110, 361-370.Google Scholar

  • Ziebart M.K., Iliffe J.C., Forsberg R. and Strykowski G., 2008, Convergence of the UK OSGM05 GRACE-based geoid and the UK fundamental benchmark network, J Geophys Res 113, B12401, doi: 10.1029/2007JB004959.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zilkoski D.B., Richards J.H. and Young G.M., 1992, Results of the general adjustment of the North American Vertical datum of 1988, Surv Land Inf Sys 52, 133-149. Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-01-29

Published in Print: 2012-12-01

Citation Information: Journal of Geodetic Science, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 343–354, ISSN (Print) 2081-9943, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10156-011-0048-1.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Thomas Grombein, Kurt Seitz, and Bernhard Heck
Surveys in Geophysics, 2017, Volume 38, Number 2, Page 443
Joanna Kuczynska-Siehien, Adam Lyszkowicz, Katarzyna Stepniak, and Marta Krukowska
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in