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Journal of Geodetic Science

Editor-in-Chief: Eshagh, Mehdi

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Fully populated VCM or the hidden parameter

G. Kermarrec / S. Schön
Published Online: 2017-12-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jogs-2017-0016


Least-squares estimates are trustworthy with minimal variance if the correct stochastic model is used. Due to computational burden, diagonal models that neglect correlations are preferred to describe the elevation dependency of the variance of GPS observations. In this contribution, an improved stochastic model based on a parametric function to take correlations between GPS phase observations into account is presented. Built on an adapted and flexible Mátern function accounting for spatiotemporal variabilities, its parameters can be fixed thanks to Maximum Likelihood Estimation or chosen apriori to model turbulent tropospheric refractivity fluctuations. In this contribution, we will show in which cases and under which conditions corresponding fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM) replace the estimation of a tropospheric parameter. For this equivalence “augmented functional versus augmented stochastic model” to hold, the VCM should be made sufficiently largewhich corresponds to computing small batches of observations. A case study with observations from a medium baseline of 80 km divided into batches of 600 s shows improvement of up to 100 mm for the 3Drms when fully populated VCM are used compared with an elevation dependent diagonal model. It confirms the strong potential of such matrices to improve the least-squares solution, particularly when ambiguities are let float.

Keywords: correlations; equivalence stochastic functional model; GNSS phase measurement; hidden tropospheric parameter; least-squares; Mátern covariance function; stochastic model


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About the article

Received: 2017-06-28

Accepted: 2017-11-02

Published Online: 2017-12-07

Published in Print: 2017-11-27

Citation Information: Journal of Geodetic Science, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 151–161, ISSN (Online) 2081-9943, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jogs-2017-0016.

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© by G. Kermarrec. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

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