Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Journal of Medical Biochemistry

The Journal of Society of Medical Biochemists of Serbia


IMPACT FACTOR 2015: 0.742

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.204
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.333
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 0.507

Open Access
Online
ISSN
1452-8266
See all formats and pricing

 


Select Volume and Issue

Issues

Effect of Nutritionally Relevant Doses of Long-Chain N-3 Pufa on Lipid Status, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in an Average Middle-Aged Serbian Population / Uticaj Preporučenih Doza Dugolančanih N-3 Masnih Kiselina Na Lipidni Status, Oksidativni Stres I Markere Inflamacije Kod Ispitanika Srednjih Godina

1 / Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević2 / Milica Miljković2 / Mirko Kerkez3 / Vladimir Đorđević3 / Ljubomir Đurašić4 / Slađana Šobajić1

1Department of Bromatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

3Clinic for Digestive Surgery – 1st Surgical Clinic, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

4Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

© by Ivana Đuričić. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citation Information: Journal of Medical Biochemistry. Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 304–313, ISSN (Online) 1452-8266, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/jomb-2014-0039, July 2015

Publication History

Received:
2014-02-20
Accepted:
2014-03-28
Published Online:
2015-07-14

Summary

Background: This study investigated the effects of a nutritionally relevant intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids derived from oily fish or a fish oil supplement on selected cardiovascular risk factors in average middle-aged individuals.

Methods: Thirty-three participants were randomized to receive salmon (oily fish) providing 274 mg EPA + 671 mg DHA/day or a commercial fish oil supplement providing 396 mg EPA + 250 mg DHA/day in a cross-over trial over an 8-week period separated by a 6-month washout period. Blood samples were collected before and after each intervention and lipids, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were determined.

Results: Plasma levels of EPA, DHA and total n-3 fatty acids significantly increased after both interventions. A decreasing trend in triglycerides was more pronounced with salmon than with the fish oil supplement, but the changes noticed were not significant. Although there were no relevant changes in inflammatory marker concentrations at the end of both interventions, significant negative correlations were noticed between total plasma n-3 fatty acids and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule and Creactive proteinconcenthroughout the whole intervention period (p<0.05). Among the oxidative stress parameters, intervention with salmon showed a prooxidative effect through a superoxide anion increase (p=0.025). A relevant positive correlation was also found between its concentration and total plasma n-3 fatty acids (p<0.05). Other oxidative stress markers were not significantly influenced by the dietary interventions applied.

Conclusion: Following two sets of recommendations for n- 3 fatty acids intake aimed at the general public had only a moderate effect on the selected cardiovascular risk factors in average healthy middle-aged subjects over a short-term period

Kratok sadržaj

Uvod: U ovoj studiji praćeni su efekti preporuka za unos eikozapentaenske (EPA) i dokozoheksaenske kiseline (DHA), iz dva razlicita izvora, lososa i suplementa sa ribljim uljem, na odabrane faktore kardiovaskularnog rizika u prosečnoj populaciji srednjih godina.

Metode: Trideset i tri ispitanika su po slučajnom izboru konzumirali losos koji je obezbeđivao 274 mg EPA +671 mg DHA/dan ili komercijalni suplement ribljeg ulja koji je obezbeđivao dnevno 396 mg EPA + 250 mg DHA tokom 8 nedelja. Nakon perioda od 6 meseci ispitanicima su zamenjene intervencije (ukrštena studija). Uzorci krvi su sakupljani pre i posle svake intervencije, a zatim su određivani lipidni, inflamatorni parametri kao i markeri oksidativnog stresa.

Rezultati: Koncentracije EPA, DHA i ukupnih n-3 masnih kiselina u plazmi su značajno povećane posle obe intervencije. Nije bilo statistički značajnnih promena u lipidnim parametrima, iako je zabelezeno vece smanjenje nivoa triglicerida posle intervencije lososom u poredenju sa suplementom. Nisu uočene značajne promene u koncentraciji inflamatornih markera, ali je utvrđena značajna negativna korelacija između ukupnih n-3 masnih kiselina plazme i rastvorljivog intracelularnog adhezionog molekula i C-reaktivnog proteina tokom ukupnog trajanja studije (p<0,05). Od parametara oksidativnog stresa, intervencija lososom je imala umeren prooksidativni efekat usled povecanja superoksidnog anjona (p= 0,025). Između ovog parametra i ukupnih n-3 masnih kiselina nađena je sta­tistički značajna pozitivna korelacija. Ostali marked oksida­tivnog stresa nisu se značajno menjali.

Zaključak: Preporučene vrednosti za unos n-3 masnih kise­lina pokazale su umeren efekat na parametre kardiovaskularnog rizika u prosečnoj populaciji srednjih godina u kratkom periodu trajanja studije

Keywords: n-3 fatty acids; fish and fish oil supplements; circulating inflammatory markers; oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease

Ključne reči: n-3 masne kiseline; riba i suplementi ribljeg ulja; cirkulatorni inflamatorni marked; oksidativni stres; kardiovaskularne bolesti

References

  • 1. Vrablik M, Prusikova M, Snejdrlova M, Zlatohlavek L. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk: do we understand the relationship? Physiol Res 2009; 58: 19-26.

  • 2. Yates CM, Calder PC, Rainger G. Pharmacology and therapeutics of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic inflammatory disease. Pharmacol Therapeut 2014; 141: 272-82. [Web of Science]

  • 3. Myhrstad MC, Retterstøl K, Telle-Hansen VH, Ottestad I, Halvorsen B, Holven KB, Ulven SM. Effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on circulating inflammatory markers in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Inflamm Res 2011; 60(4): 309-19. [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • 4. Miles EA, Thies F, Wallace FA, Powell JR, Hurst TL, Newsholme EA, Calder PC. Influence of age and dietary fish oil on plasma soluble adhesion molecule concentrations. Clin Sci 2001; 100(1): 91-100. [Crossref] [PubMed]

  • 5. Cazzola R, Russo-Volpe S, Miles EA, Rees D, Banerjee T, Roynette CE, et al. Age- and dose-dependent effects of an eicosapentaenoic acid-rich oil on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjects. Atherosclerosis 2007; 193(1): 159-67. [Crossref] [PubMed] [Web of Science]

  • 6. Eritsland J. Safety considerations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(1): 197-201.

  • 7. Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, Appel LJ, Daniels SR, Deckelbaum RJ, et al. AHA dietary guidelines: revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the nutrition committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2000; 102: 2284-99. [Crossref] [PubMed]

  • 8. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation, diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2003; 916: 89-90.

  • 9. Đuričić I, Šobajić S, Peruničić-Peković G, Stojanov M, Rašić Z. Consumption of fish oil supplement alters erythrocyte fatty acid composition in overweight, hypercholesterolemic middle-aged Serbians. Nutr Res 2007; 27: 529-34. [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • 10. Vekić J, Kotur-Stevuljević J, Jelic-Ivanović Z, Spasić S, Spasojević-Kalimanovska V, Topić A, et al. Association of oxidative stress and PON1 with LDL and HDL particle size in middle-aged subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 2007; 37: 15-23. [Web of Science]

  • 11. Incidence and mortality of acute coronary syndrome in Serbia in 2011. Serbian Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry - Report No 6. Institute of Public Health of Serbia, 2012, Belgrade.

  • 12. The Expert Panel Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Final report. Circulation 2002; 106: 3143-421.

  • 13. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH. Methods for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J Biol Chem 1957; 226: 497-509.

  • 14. Kates M. Techniques in lipidology. Amsterdam: North- Holland Publishing Company 1972.

  • 15. Ichihara K, Fukubayashi Y. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography. J Lipid Res 2010; 51(3): 635-40. [Crossref] [PubMed]

  • 16. Auclar C, Voisin E. Nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. In: Greenworld RA, editor. CRC Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research: Florida: CRC Press; 1985. pp 123-32.

  • 17. Girotti MJ, Khan N, McLellan BA. Early measurement of systemic lipid peroxidation products in the plasma of major blunt trauma patients. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 1991; 31(1): 32-5.

  • 18. Erel O. A novel automated method to measure total antioxidant response against potent free radical reactions. Clin Biochem 2004; 37: 112-19. [PubMed] [Crossref]

  • 19. Djuricic ID, Mazic SD, Kotur-Stevuljevic JM, Djordjevic VR, Sobajic SS. Longchain n-3 PUFA dietary recommendations are moderately efficient in optimizing their status in healthy middle-aged subjects with low fish consumption: A cross-over study. Nutr Res 2014; 34: 210-18. [Crossref] [Web of Science] [PubMed]

  • 20. Trumbo P, Schlicker S, Yates AA, Poos M. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. J Am Diet Assoc 2002; 102(11): 1621-30. [PubMed] [Crossref]

  • 21. Beckermann B, Beneke M, Seitz I. Comparative bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid and docasahexaenoic acid from triglycerides, free fatty acids and ethyl esters in volunteers. Arzneimittel-Forschung 1990; 40(6): 700-4.

  • 22. Hansen JB, Olsen JO, Wilsgard L, Lyngmo V, Svensson B. Comparative effects of prolonged intake of highly purified fish oils as ethyl ester or triglyceride on lipids, haemostasis and platelet function in normolipaemic men. Eur J Clin Nutr 1993; 47(7): 497-507. [PubMed]

  • 23. Von Schacky C. Use of red blood cell fatty-acid profiles as biomarkers in cardiac disease. Biomarkers 2009; 3(1): 25-32. [Web of Science]

  • 24. Cao J, Schwichtenberg KA, Hanson NQ, Tsai MY. Incorporation and clearance of omega-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and plasma phospholipids. Clin Chem 2006; 52: 2265-72. [PubMed] [Crossref]

  • 25. Harris WS, Pottala JV, Sands SA, Jones PG. Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n-3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86(6): 1621-5.

  • 26. Harris WS. n-3 Fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: Human studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 1645-54.

  • 27. Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, O’Neal DN, Best JD, Beilin LJ. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 1085-94. [PubMed]

  • 28. Harris WS, Dayspring TD, Moran TJ. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications. Postgrad Med 2013; 125(6): 100-13. [Crossref] [Web of Science] [PubMed]

  • 29. Visioli F, Rise P, Barassi MC, Marangoni F, Galli C. Dietary intake of fish vs. formulations leads to higher plasma con- centrations of n-3 fatty acids. Lipids 2003; 38(4): 415-18. [Crossref]

  • 30. Elvevoll EO, Barstad H, Breimo ES, Brox J, Eilertsen KE, Lund T, et al. Enhanced incorporation of n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils. Lipids 2006; 41(12): 1109-14. [Crossref] [PubMed]

  • 31. Packard RR, Libby P. Inflammation in atherosclerosis: from vascular biology to biomarker discovery and risk prediction. Clin Chem 2008; 54(1): 24-38. [PubMed] [Crossref]

  • 32. Korita I, Bulo A, Langlois, Blaton V. Inflammation markers in patients with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. J Med Biochem 2013; 32: 214-9. [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • 33. Coskun A, Serteser M, Unsal I. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in hypercholesterolemia - is it right choice. J Med Biochem 2013; 32: 16-9. [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • 34. Eschen O, Christensen JH, De Caterina R, Schmidt EB. Soluble adhesion molecules in healthy subjects: a doseresponse study using n-3 fatty acids. Nutr Metab Cardiovas 2004; 14(4): 180-5. [Crossref]

  • 35. Kew S, Banerjee T, Minihane AM, Finnegan YE, Muggli R, Albers R, et al. Lack of effect of foods enriched with plant- or marine-derived n-3 fatty acids on human immune function. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77(5): 1287-95.

  • 36. Miles EA, Banerjee T, Dooper MM, M'Rabet L, Graus YM, Calder PC. The influence of different combinations of linolenic acid, stearidonic acid and EPA on immune function in healthy young male subjects. Br J Nutr 2004; 91(6): 893-903. [Crossref] [PubMed]

  • 37. Paulo MC, Andrade AM, Andrade ML, Morais MG, Kiely M, Parra D, et al. Influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on soluble cellular adhesion molecules as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in young healthy subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovas 2008; 18(10): 664-70. [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • 38. Vega-Lopez, S, Kaul N, Devaraj S, Cai RY, German B, Jialal I. Supplementation with omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and all-rac alpha-tocopherol alone and in combination failed to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in human volunteers. Metabolism 2004; 53(2): 236-40. [Crossref]

  • 39. Madsen T, Christensen JH, Blom M, Schmidt EB. The effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of C-reactive protein: a dose-response study. Br J Nutr 2003; 89(4): 517-22. [PubMed] [Crossref]

  • 40. Carrero JJ, Fonolla J, Marti JL, Jimenez J, Boza JJ, Lopez- Huertas E. Intake of fish oil, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E for 1 year decreases plasma C-reactive protein and reduces coronary heart disease risk factors in male patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program. J Nutr 2007; 137(2): 384-90.

  • 41. Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Kupelnick B, Chew P, Lau J. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Athero sclerosis 2006; 189(1): 19-30.

  • 42. Rizzo M, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Berneis K, Spinas G, Rini GB, Jelic-Ivanovic Z, et al. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and oxidative stress: a new look. Translational Research 2009; 153(5): 217-23. [Web of Science]

  • 43. Siddiqui RA, Harvey K, Stillwell W. Anticancer properties of oxidation products of docosahexaenoic acid. Chem Phys Lipids 2008; 153: 47-56. [Web of Science]

  • 44. Mori TA. Dietary n-3 PUFA and CVD: a review of the evidence. Proc Nutr Soc 2014; 73(1): 57-64. [PubMed] [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • 45. Giordano E, Visioli F. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids: Molecular bases of potential antioxidant actions. Prostag Leukotr Ess 2014; 90: 1-4. [Web of Science]

  • 46. Kimura Y, Sato M, Kurotani K, Nanri A, Kawai K, Kasai H, et al. PUFAs in serum cholesterol ester and oxidative DNA damage in Japanese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95(5): 1209-14. [Web of Science] [Crossref] [PubMed]

  • 47. Stefanović A, Kotur-Stevuljević J, Spasić S, Vekić J, Zeljković A, Spasojević- Kalimanovska V, Jelić-Ivanović Z. HDL 2 Particles are associated with hyperglycaemia, lower PON1 activity and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Clin Biochem 2010; 43(15): 1230-5. [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • 48. Schmidt S, Stahl F, Mutz KO, Scheper T, Hahn A, Schuchardt JP. Transcriptome-based identification of antioxidative gene expression after fish oil supplementation in normo- and dyslipidemic men. Nutr Metab 2012; 1: 45. [Web of Science]

  • 49. Barbosa DS, Cecchini R, El Kadri MZ, Marchesan Rodryguez MA, Burini RC, Dichi I. Decreased oxidative stress in patients with ulcerative colitis supplemented with fish oil - fatty acids. Nutrition 2003; 19(10): 837-42. [PubMed] [Crossref]

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.