Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Official Statistics

The Journal of Statistics Sweden

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.411
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.776

CiteScore 2016: 0.63

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.710
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.975

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Aspects of Responsive Design with Applications to the Swedish Living Conditions Survey

Peter Lundquist / Carl-Erik Särndal
Published Online: 2013-11-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/jos-2013-0040


In recent literature on survey nonresponse, new indicators of the quality of the data collection have been proposed. These include indicators of balance and representativity (of the set of respondents) and distance (between respondents and nonrespondents), computed on available auxiliary variables. We use such indicators in conjunction with paradata from the Swedish CATI system to examine the inflow of data (as a function of the call attempt number) for the 2009 Swedish Living Conditions Survey (LCS). We then use the LCS 2009 data file to conduct several “experiments in retrospect”. They consist in interventions, at suitable chosen points and driven by the prospects of improved balance and reduced distance. The survey estimates computed on the resulting final response set are likely to be less biased. Cost savings realized by fewer calls can be redirected to enhance quality of other aspects of the survey design.

Keywords: Household surveys; nonresponse; auxiliary vector; register variables; stopping rules; balance indicators; representativeness; R-indicator

  • Bethlehem, J., Cobben, F., and Schouten, B. (2011). Handbook of Nonresponse in Household Surveys. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

  • Groves, R. (2006). Research Synthesis: Nonresponse Rates and Nonresponse Bias in Household Surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 646-675. DOI: http://www. dx.doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfl033CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Groves, R.M. and Heeringa, S.G. (2006). Responsive Design for Household Surveys: Tools for Actively Controlling Survey Errors and Costs. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A, 169, 439-457. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-985X. 2006.00423.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hörngren, J., Lundquist, P., and Westling, S. (2008). Effects of Number of Call Attempts on Nonresponse Rates and Nonresponse Bias - Result from Some Case Studies at Statistics Sweden. Proceedings 24th International Methodology Symposium, Statistics Canada, Session 17, catalogue no. 11-522-XIE. Available at: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca. (accessed September 19, 2013).Google Scholar

  • Laflamme, F. (2009). Experiences in Assessing, Monitoring and Controlling Survey Productivity and Costs at Statistics Canada. Proceedings of the 57th Session of the International Statistical Institute, South Africa. (August 16-22). Available at: http://www.statssa.gov.za/isi2009/ScientificProgramme/IPMS/0049.pdf (accessed October 11, 2013).Google Scholar

  • Lundquist, P. and Sa¨rndal, C.-E. (2012). Aspects of Responsive Design for the Swedish Living Conditions Survey. R&D report 2012:1, Statistics Sweden. Available at: www.scb.se. (accessed September 19, 2013).Google Scholar

  • Mohl, C. and Laflamme, F. (2007). Research and Responsive Design Options for Survey Data Collection at Statistics Canada. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Section on Survey Research Methods. (July 29-August 2) Available at: https://www.amstat.org/sections/SRMS/Proceedings/y2007/Files/JSM2007-000421.pdf (accessed October 11, 2013).Google Scholar

  • Peytchev A, Baxter, R.K., and Carley-Baxter, L.R. (2009). Not All Survey Effort is Equal. Reduction of Nonresponse Bias and Nonresponse Error. Public Opinion Quarterly, 73, 785-806. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfp037 Peytchev, A., Riley, S., Rosen, J., Murphy, J., and Lindblad, M. (2010). Reduction of Nonresponse Bias in Surveys Through Case Prioritization. Survey Research Methods, 4, 21-29.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Peytcheva, E. and Groves, R.M. (2009). Using Variation in Response Rates of Demographic Subgroups as Evidence on Nonresponse Bias in Survey Estimates. Journal of Official Statistics, 25, 193-201.Google Scholar

  • Rao, R.S., Glickman, M.E., and Glynn, R.J. (2008). Stopping Rules for Surveys with Multiple Waves of Nonrespondent Follow-Up. Statistics in Medicine, 27, 2196-2213. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.3063Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Schouten, B. and Bethlehem, J. (2009). Representativeness Indicator for Measuring and Enhancing the Composition of Survey Response. RISQ work package 8, deliverable 9. Available at: http://www.risq-project.eu/. (accessed September 19, 2013).Google Scholar

  • Schouten, B., Cobben, F., and Bethlehem, J. (2009). Indicators for the Representativeness of Survey Response. Survey Methodology, 35, 101-113.Google Scholar

  • Schouten, B., Shlomo, N., and Skinner, C. (2011). Indicators for Monitoring and Improving Representativeness of Response. Journal of Official Statistics, 27, 231-253.Google Scholar

  • Särndal, C.-E. (2011a). Dealing with Survey Nonresponse in Data Collection, in Estimation. Journal of Official Statistics, 27, 1-21.Google Scholar

  • Särndal, C.-E. (2011b). Three Factors to Signal Nonresponse Bias, with Applications to Categorical Auxiliary Variables. International Statistical Review, 79, 233-254. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-5823.2011.00142.x.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Särndal, C.-E. and Lundstro¨m, S. (2005). Estimations in Surveys with Nonresponse. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

  • Särndal, C.-E. and Lundstro¨m, S. (2008). Assessing Auxiliary Vectors for Control of Nonresponse Bias in the Calibration Estimator. Journal of Official Statistics, 24, 251-260.Google Scholar

  • Särndal, C.-E. and Lundstro¨m, S. (2010). Design for Estimation: Identifying Auxiliary Vectors to Reduce Nonresponse Bias. Survey Methodology, 36, 131-144.Google Scholar

  • Wagner, J. (2008). Adaptive Survey Design to Reduce Nonresponse Bias. Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Available at: http://www.google.se/- books?hl=sv&lr=&id=ilVbF2qPlTgC&oi=fnd&pg=PR3&dq=Wagner+(2008)+Adaptive+ survey+design+to+reduce+nonresponse+bias&ots=iqKD3_BnEQ&sig=cRtrqbzLogBQERLCHdBiuhyNu2k& redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Wagner%20(2008) %20Adaptive%20survey%20design%20to%20reduce%20nonresponse%20bias&f=- false (accessed October 11, 2013).Google Scholar

  • Wagner, J. (2012). Research Synthesis: A Comparison of Alternative Indicators for the Risk of Nonresponse Bias. Public Opinion Quarterly, 76, 555-575. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfs032Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wagner, J. and Raghunathan, T.E. (2010). A New Stopping Rule for Surveys. Statistics in Medicine, 29, 1014-1024, DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.3834 CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-11-09

Published in Print: 2013-12-01

Citation Information: Journal of Official Statistics, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 557–582, ISSN (Online) 2001-7367, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/jos-2013-0040.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

J. Michael Brick and Roger Tourangeau
Journal of Official Statistics, 2017, Volume 33, Number 3
Joep Burger, Koen Perryck, and Barry Schouten
Journal of Official Statistics, 2017, Volume 33, Number 3
Olena Kaminska and Peter Lynn
Journal of Official Statistics, 2017, Volume 33, Number 3
Caroline Vandenplas, Geert Loosveldt, and Koen Beullens
Journal of Official Statistics, 2017, Volume 33, Number 3
Carl-Erik Särndal and Peter Lundquist
Journal of Official Statistics, 2017, Volume 33, Number 3
Annamaria Bianchi and Silvia Biffignandi
Statistical Journal of the IAOS, 2017, Volume 33, Number 2, Page 459

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in