Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Ed. by Bereket, Abdullah / Darendeliler, Feyza / Dattani, Mehul / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Feihong / Mericq, Veronica / Roth, Christian / Toppari, Jorma

Editorial Board Member: Battelino, Tadej / Buyukgebiz, Atilla / Cassorla, Fernando / Chrousos, George P. / Cutfield, Wayne / Fideleff, Hugo L. / Hershkovitz, Eli / Hiort, Olaf / LaFranchi, Stephen H. / Lanes M. D., Roberto / Mohn, Angelika / Root, Allen W. / Rosenfeld, Ron G. / Werther, George / Zadik, Zvi

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.233

CiteScore 2016: 1.09

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.527
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.602

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 26, Issue 5-6 (May 2013)


Penile length and genital anomalies in Egyptian male newborns: epidemiology and influence of endocrine disruptors

Mohamed El Kholy / Rasha Tarif Hamza / Mohamed Saleh / Heba Elsedfy
Published Online: 2013-03-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2012-0350


This is an attempt to establish the normal stretched penile length and prevalence of male genital anomalies in full-term neonates and whether they are influenced by prenatal parental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A thousand newborns were included; their mothers were subjected to the following questionnaire: parents’ age, residence, occupation, contact with insecticides and pesticides, antenatal exposure to cigarette smoke or drugs, family history of genital anomalies, phytoestrogens intake and history of in vitro fertilization or infertility. Free testosterone was measured in 150 neonates in the first day of life. Mean penile length was 3.4±0.37 cm. A penile length <2.5 cm was considered micropenis. Prevalence of genital anomalies was 1.8% (hypospadias 83.33%). There was a higher rate of anomalies in those exposed to endocrine disruptors (EDs; 7.4%) than in the non-exposed (1.2%; p<0.0001; odds ratio 6, 95% confidence interval 2–16). Mean penile length showed a linear relationship with free testosterone and was lower in neonates exposed to EDs.

Keywords: endocrine disruptors; genital anomalies; male; penile length; testosterone


  • 1.

    Aaronson IA. Micropenis: medical and surgical implications. J Urol 1994;152:4–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 2.

    Gabrich PN, Vasconcelos JS, Damião R, Silva EA. Penile anthropometry in Brazilian children and adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2007;83:441–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3.

    Sultan C, Balaguer P, Terouanne B, Georget V, Paris F, et al. Environmental xenoestrogens, antiandrogens and disorders of male sexual differentiation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001;10:178: 99–105.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Sharpe RM, Skakkebæk NE. Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet 1993;341:1392–5.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Acerini CL, Hughes IA. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: a new and emerging public health problem? Arch Dis Child 2006;91: 633–41.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    Joensen UN, Jørgensen N, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Skakkebaek NE. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;102:155–61.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    IEH. Chemicals purported to be endocrine disruptors: a compilation of published lists. (Web Report W20), Leicester, UK: MRC Institute for Environmental Health, 2005. Accessed on March 2005. Available at http://www.le.ac.uk/ieh/.

  • 8.

    Cheng PK, Chanoine JP. Should the definition of micropenis vary according to ethnicity? Horm Res 2001;55:278–81.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Scorer CG. The incidence of incomplete descent of the testicle at birth. Arch Dis Child 1956;31:198–202.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Daniel WW. Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences, 6th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Flatau E, Josefsberg Z, Reisner SH, Bialik O, Iaron Z. Letter: penile size in the newborn infants. J Pediatr 1975;87:663–4.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Ozbey H, Temiz A, Salman T. A simple method for measuring penile length in newborn and infants. BJU Int 1999;84:1093–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Al-Herbish AS. Standard penile size for normal full term newborns in the Saudi population. Saudi Med J 2002;23:314–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 14.

    Lian WB, Lee WR, Ho LY. Penile length of newborns in Singapore. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2000;13:55–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Vasudevan G, Manivarmane B, Bhat BV, Bhatia BD, Kumar S. Genital standards for south Indian male newborns. Indian J Pediatr 1995;62:593–6.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Boas M, Boisen KA, Virtanen HE, Kaleva M, Suomi AM, et al. Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels: a longitudinal study of 1962 normal boys. Eur J Endocrinol 2006;154:125–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Camurdan AD, Oz MO, Ilhan MN, Camurdan OM, Sahin F, et al. Current stretched penile length: cross-sectional study of 1040 healthy Turkish children aged 0 to 5 years. Urology 2007;70:572–5.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 18.

    Bay K, Asklund C, Skakkebaek NE, Andersson AM. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disruptors. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;20:77–90.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19.

    Czeizel A. Increasing trends in congenital malformations of male external genitalia. Lancet 1985;i:462–3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    Matlai P, Beral V. Trends in congenital malformations of external genitalia. Lancet 1985;i:108.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 21.

    Källén B, Bertollini R, Castilla E, Czeizel A, Knudsen LB, et al. A joint international study on the epidemiology of hypospadias. Acta Paediatr Scand 1986;324(Suppl):1–52.Google Scholar

  • 22.

    Paulozzi LJ, Erickson JD, Jackson RJ. Hypospadias trends in two US surveillance systems. Pediatrics 1997;100:831–4.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 23.

    Paulozzi LJ. International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Environ Health Perspect 1999;107: 297–302.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 24.

    EUROCAT Working Group. EUROCAT report 7. 15 years of surveillance of congenital anomalies in Europe 1980–1994.Brussels, Belgium: Scientific Institute of Public Health-Louis Pasteur, 1997.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Toppari J, Kaleva M, Virtanen HE. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias, and methodological limitations of registry-based data. Hum Reprod Update 2001;7:282–6.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 26.

    Nassar N, Bower C, Barker A. Increasing prevalence of hypospadias in Western Australia, 1980–2000. Arch Dis Child 2007;92:580–4.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 27.

    Wang MH, Baskin LS. Endocrine disruptors, genital development, and hypospadias. J Androl 2008;29:499–505.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 28.

    Morales-Suárez-Varela MM, Toft GV, Jensen MS, Ramlau-Hansen C, Linda Kaerlev L, et al. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study. Environ Health 2011;10:3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 29.

    Gaspari L, Sampaio DR, Paris F, Audran F, Orsini M, et al. High prevalence of micropenis in 2710 male newborns from an intensive-use pesticide area of Northeastern Brazil. Int J Androl 2012;35:253–64.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Rasha Tarif Hamza, MD, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University, 36 Hisham Labib Street, off Makram Ebeid Street, Nasr City, Cairo 11371, Cairo, Egypt, Phone: +20-2-22734727, Fax: +20-2-26904430

Received: 2012-10-25

Accepted: 2013-01-27

Published Online: 2013-03-18

Published in Print: 2013-05-01

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2012-0350.

Export Citation

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston. Copyright Clearance Center

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Jessica García, María I. Ventura, Mar Requena, Antonio F. Hernández, Tesifón Parrón, and Raquel Alarcón
Reproductive Toxicology, 2017, Volume 71, Page 95
Serwah Bonsu Asafo-Agyei, Emmanuel Ameyaw, Jean-Pierre Chanoine, and Samuel Blay Nguah
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology, 2017, Volume 2017, Number 1
Carol A. Podlasek, John Mulhall, Kelvin Davies, Christopher J. Wingard, Johanna L. Hannan, Trinity J. Bivalacqua, Biljana Musicki, Mohit Khera, Nestor F. González-Cadavid, and Arthur L. Burnett
The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2016, Volume 13, Number 8, Page 1183

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in