Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Ed. by Bereket, Abdullah / Darendeliler, Feyza / Dattani, Mehul / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Fei Hong / Toppari, Jorma / Turan, Serap Demircioglu

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.239

CiteScore 2018: 1.22

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.507
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.562

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 27, Issue 5-6


Are the characteristics of thyroid cancer different in young patients?

Aybala Agac Ay
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Medicine, General Surgery Department, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale 71500, Turkey
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Suat Kutun / Abdullah Çetin
Published Online: 2013-12-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2013-0192


Background: Thyroid carcinoma in pediatric patients continues to be a rare albeit significant condition because local recurrence or distant metastases may be revealed during its diagnosis, or even years after completion of treatment.

Methods: This study was prepared by retrospective analysis of patient files to focus on the clinical presentation of thyroid carcinoma in pediatric patients, and proposes to investigate the clinical parameters that differ from, or that correspond to, those in adult patients.

Subjects: A total of 108 patients, of whom 22 were children and adolescents and 86 were adults, and who were operated on for differentiated thyroid carcinoma during the period 2001–2009, were included in the study.

Results: The rate of large thyroid, multinodular goiter, or tumor >1 cm was significantly higher in the adult group than in the pediatric group. Our analysis also revealed that that the frequency of lymph node metastasis was significantly higher in the pediatric group than in the adult group. Moreover, the frequencies of total lymph node and positive lymph node presentations were significantly higher in the pediatric group than in the adult group.

Conclusion: Although thyroid carcinoma has a good prognosis in young patients, one must stress that late diagnosis and ineffective treatment are the main criteria for poor prognosis and, most important, that it is advisable to keep the management of thyroid carcinoma on a path that differs from the management of adult thyroid carcinomas, in nearly all aspects from presentation to treatment.

Keywords: adolescent patients; pediatric patients; thyroid cancer


  • 1.

    Kowalski LP, Gonçales Filho JG, Pinto CA, Carvalho AL, de Camargo B. Long-term survival rates in young patients with thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;129:746–9.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Hussain F, Iqbal S, Mehmood A, Bazarbashi S, Elhassan T, et al. Incidence of thyroid cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2000–2010. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2013;6:58–64. doi: 10.1016/j.hemonc.2013.05.004. Epub 2013 Jun 10.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3.

    Pellegriti G, Frasca F, Regalbuto C, Squatrito S, Vigneri R. Worldwide increasing incidence of thyroid cancer: update on epidemiology and risk factors. J Cancer Epidemiol 2013;2013:965212. doi: 10.1155/2013/965212. Epub 2013 May 7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4.

    Newman KD, Black T, Heller G, Azizkhan RG, Holcomb GW 3rd, et al. Differentiated thyroid cancer: determinants of disease progression in patients <21 years of age at diagnosis: a report from the Surgical Discipline Committee of the Children’s Cancer Group. Ann Surg 1998;227:533–41.Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Harach HR, Williams ED. Childhood thyroid cancer in England and Wales. Br J Cancer 1995;72:777–83.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    Wada N, Sugino K, Mimura T, Nagahama M, Kitagawa W, et al. Pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma in stage I: risk factor analysis for disease free survival. BMC Cancer 2009;9:306.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    Pazaitou-Panayiotou K, Kaprara A, Boudina M, Georgiou E, Drimonitis A, et al. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents: presentation, clinical course, and outcome of therapy in 23 children and adolescents in Northern Greece. Hormones (Athens) 2005;4:213–20.Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Parisi MT, Mankoff D. Differentiated pediatric thyroid cancer: correlates with adult disease, controversies in treatment. Semin Nucl Med 2007;37:340–56.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Koo JS, Hong S, Park CS. Diffuse sclerosing variant is a major subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma in the young. Thyroid 2009;19:1225–31.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Baş VN, Aycan Z, Cetinkaya S, Uner C, Cavuşoğlu YH, et al. Thyroid nodules in children and adolescents: a single institution’s experience. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2012;25:633–8.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 11.

    Hogan AR, Zhuge Y, Perez EA, Koniaris LG, Lew JI, et al. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma: incidence and outcomes in 1753 patients. J Surg Res 2009;156:167–72.Google Scholar

  • 12.

    Segal K, Shvero J, Stern Y, Mechlis S, Feinmesser R. Surgery of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Head Neck 1998;20:293–7.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Popovtzer A, Shpitzer T, Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Segal K. Thyroid cancer in children: management and outcome experience of a referral center. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;135:581–4.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Spinelli C, Bertocchini A, Antonelli A, Miccoli P. Surgical therapy of the thyroid papillary carcinoma in children: experience with 56 patients < or =16 years old. J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:1500–5.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Hod N, Hagag P, Baumer M, Sandbank J, Horne T. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children and young adults: evaluation of response to treatment. Clin Nucl Med 2005;30:387–90.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Giuffrida D, Scollo C, Pellegriti G, Lavenia G, Iurato MP, et al. Differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. J Endocrinol Invest 2002;25:18–24.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Palmer BA, Zarroug AE, Poley RN, Kollars JP, Moir CR. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children: risk factors and complications of disease recurrence. J Pediatr Surg 2005;40:1284–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18.

    Ji QH, Zhang L, Zhu YX, Huang CP. Long-term impact of initial surgical and medical therapy on young patients with papillary thyroid cancer and bilateral cervical metastases. Chin Med J (Engl) 2008;121:63–6.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Niedziela M. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in children. Endocr Relat Cancer 2006;13: 427–53.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    Niedziela M, Breborowicz D, Trejster E, Korman E. Hot nodules in children and adolescents in western Poland from 1996 to 2000: clinical analysis of 31 patients. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2002;15:823–30.Google Scholar

  • 21.

    Arda IS, Yildirim S, Demirhan B, Fırat S. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. Arch Dis Child 2001;85:313–7.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 22.

    Liu FH, Hsueh C, Chao TC, Lin JD. Neck nodule and thyroid cancer in young without radiation exposure history. Pediatr Surg Int 2009;25:785–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 23.

    Kuo SF, Chao TC, Hsueh C, Chuang WY, Yang CH, et al. Prognosis and risk stratification in young papillary thyroid carcinoma patients. Endocr J 2008;5:269–75.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 24.

    Demidchik YE, Demidchik EP, Reiners C, Biko J, Mine M, et al. Comprehensive clinical assessment of 740 cases of surgically treated thyroid cancer in children of Belarus. Ann Surg 2006;243:525–32.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Iurato MP, Scollo C, Belfiore A, Pellegriti G, Salice P, et al. [Differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid in the young. Clinical and histopathologic aspects]. Minerva Endocrinol 2000;25:39–45.Google Scholar

  • 26.

    Welch Dinauer CA, Tuttle RM, Robie DK, McClellan DR, Francis GL. Extensive surgery improves recurrence-free survival for children and young patients with class I papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Pediatr Surg 1999;34:1799–804.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 27.

    Bargren AE, Meyer-Rochow GY, Delbridge LW, Sidhu SB, Chen H. Outcomes of surgically managed pediatric thyroid cancer. J Surg Res 2009;156:70–3.Google Scholar

  • 28.

    Luster M, Lassmann M, Freudenberg LS, Reiners C. Thyroid cancer in childhood: management strategy, including dosimetry and long-term results. Hormones (Athens) 2007;6:269–78.Google Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Aybala Agac Ay, School of Medicine, General Surgery Department, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale 71500, Turkey, Phone: +90 5052301566, E-mail:

Received: 2013-05-17

Accepted: 2013-10-30

Published Online: 2013-12-18

Published in Print: 2014-05-01

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume 27, Issue 5-6, Pages 497–502, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2013-0192.

Export Citation

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Francesca Galuppini, Federica Vianello, Simona Censi, Susi Barollo, Loris Bertazza, Sofia Carducci, Chiara Colato, Jacopo Manso, Massimo Rugge, Maurizio Iacobone, Sara Watutantrige Fernando, Gianmaria Pennelli, and Caterina Mian
Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2019, Volume 10
Xin-Yun Zhang, Hong-Jun Song, Zhong-Ling Qiu, Chen-Tian Shen, Xiao-Yue Chen, Zhen-Kui Sun, Wei-Jun Wei, Guo-Qiang Zhang, and Quan-Yong Luo
Endocrine, 2018
Zahra Nozhat and Mehdi Hedayati
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2016, Volume 29, Number 6

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in