Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Ed. by Bereket, Abdullah / Cohen, Pinhas / Darendeliler, Feyza / Dattani, Mehul / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Feihong / Mericq, Veronica / Roth, Christian / Toppari, Jorma

Editorial Board Member: Battelino, Tadej / Buyukgebiz, Atilla / Cassorla, Fernando / Chrousos, George P. / Cutfield, Wayne / Fideleff, Hugo L. / Hershkovitz, Eli / Hiort, Olaf / LaFranchi, Stephen H. / Lanes M. D., Roberto / Mohn, Angelika / Root, Allen W. / Rosenfeld, Ron G. / Werther, George / Zadik, Zvi

12 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.233

CiteScore 2016: 1.09

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.527
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.602

Online
ISSN
2191-0251
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 27, Issue 5-6 (May 2014)

Issues

Prevalence of risk of deficiency and inadequacy of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in US children: NHANES 2003–2006

Vytas P. Karalius
  • Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Daniel Zinn
  • Department of Pediatrics, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA
  • Department of Internal Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ James Wu / Guichan Cao
  • Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Carla Minutti / Amy Luke
  • Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Holly Kramer
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ramon Durazo-Arvizu
  • Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-03-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2013-0246

Abstract

Aim: To assess prevalence and population estimates of increased risk of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency and inadequacy in US children based on the current Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary References Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium guidelines.

Methods: The analysis was limited to a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized US children and adolescents aged 6–18 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed in 2003–2006 and had complete data on 25(OH)D measurements (n=2877). The 25(OH)D levels were adjusted for assay drift and prevalence, and population estimates of increased risk of 25(OH)D deficiency (<12 ng/mL), risk of inadequacy (<16 ng/mL), and adequacy (>20 ng/mL) were calculated.

Results: Overall, 4.61% of children and adolescents are at increased risk of deficiency (population estimate 2.5 million) and 10.3% are at risk of inadequacy (population estimate 5.5 million) based on the Institute of Medicine guidelines.

Conclusion: Approximately 10.3% of US children aged 6–18 years (population estimate 5.5 million) have 25(OH)D levels <16 ng/mL.

Keywords: deficiency; IOM guidelines; prevalence; supplementation; vitamin D

References

  • 1.

    Norman AW. A vitamin D nutritional cornucopia: new insights concerning the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D stats of the US population. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:1455–6.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 2.

    Norman AW. From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:491S–9S.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A, Collett-Solberg PF, Kappy M, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics 2008;122:398–417.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 4.

    Michos ED. Vitamin D deficiency and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Future Cardiol 2009;5:15–8.Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Melamed ML, Astor B, Michos ED, Hostetter TH, Powe NR, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, race, and the progression of kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;20:2631–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    Melamed ML, Michos ED, Post W, Astor B. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of mortality in the general population. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1629–37.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    Reis AF, Hauache OM, Velho G. Vitamin D endocrine system and the genetic susceptibility to diabetes, obesity and vascular disease. A review of evidence. Diabetes Metab 2005;31:318–25.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 8.

    Ginde AA, Liu MC, Camargo CA, Jr. Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988–2004. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:626–32.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Howe WR, Dellavalle R. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1981; author reply 1981–2.Google Scholar

  • 10.

    Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Ritz E, Pieber TR. Vitamin D status and arterial hypertension: a systematic review. Nat Rev Cardiol 2009;6:621–30.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 11.

    Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2008;117:503–11.Google Scholar

  • 12.

    Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007;357:266–81.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    MacLean HJ, Freedman MS. Multiple sclerosis: following clues from cause to cure. Lancet Neurol 2009;8:6–8.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14.

    Andiran N, Celik N, Akca H, Dogan G. Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2012;4:25–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Buyukinan M, Ozen S, Kokkun S, Saz EU. The relation of vitamin D deficiency with puberty and insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2012;25:83–7.Web of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Alemzadeh R, Kichler J, Babar G, Calhoun M. Hypovitaminosis D in obese children and adolescents: Relationship with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, ethnicity, and season. Metabolism 2008;57:183–91.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Martini LA, Wood RJ. Vitamin D status and the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Rev 2006;64:479–86.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18.

    Bischoff-Ferrari HA. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes. Adv Exp Med Biol 2008; 624:55–71.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Pilz S, Dobnig H, Winklhofer-Roob B, Riedmüller G, Fischer JE, et al. Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D predict fatal cancer in patients referred to coronary angiography. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:1228–33.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    Chen P, Hu P, Xie D, Qin Y, Wang F, et al. Meta-analysis of vitamin D, calcium and the prevention of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010;121:469–77.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21.

    Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Jacobs EJ, Arslan AA, Qi D, Patel AV, et al. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer: Cohort consortium vitamin D pooling project of rarer cancers. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:81–93.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 22.

    Yin L, Grandi N, Raum E, Haug U, Arndt V, et al. Meta-analysis: serum vitamin D and breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer 2010;46:2196–205.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 23.

    Gahche J, Bailey R, Burt V, Hughes J, Yetley E, et al. Dietary supplement use among U.S. adults has increased since NHANES III (1988–1994). NCHS Data Brief 2011;61:1–8.Google Scholar

  • 24.

    Hollis BW. Measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a clinical environment: challenges and needs. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:507S–10S.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US), 2011.Google Scholar

  • 26.

    National Center for Health Statistics. Revised analytical note for NHANES 2000–2006 and NHANES III (1988–1994) 25-hydroxyvitamin D analysis (revised November 2010). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov.archer.luhs.org/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes3/VitaminD_analyticnote.pdf2010. Accessed August 1, 2013.

  • 27.

    Yetley EA, Pfeiffer CM, Schleicher RL, Phinney KW, Lacher DA, et al. NHANES monitoring of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a roundtable summary. J Nutr 2010;140:2030S–45S.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 28.

    Curtin LR, Mohadjer LK, Dohrmann SM, Montaquila JM, Kruszon-Moran D, et al. The national health and nutrition examination survey: sample design, 1999–2006. Vital Health Stat 2012;2:1–2.Google Scholar

  • 29.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. National health and nutrition examination survey. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm. Accessed 19 July, 2012.

  • 30.

    Taylor CL, Carriquiry AL, Bailey RL, Sempos CT, Yetley EA. Appropriateness of the probability approach with a nutrient status biomarker to assess population inadequacy: a study using vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;97:72–8.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 31.

    Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Guo SS, et al. CDC growth charts: United States. Adv Data 2000;314:1–27.Google Scholar

  • 32.

    Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Obesity evaluation and treatment: expert committee recommendations. The maternal and child health bureau, health resources and services administration and the department of health and human services. Pediatrics 1998;102:E29.Google Scholar

  • 33.

    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1911–30.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 34.

    U.S. Census Bureau. 2012. “State Characteristics: Vintage 2011.” Table for Estimates of the Resident Population by Selected Age Groups for the United States, States, and Puerto Rico: July 1, 2011. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/asrh/2011/index.html. Accessed August 1, 2013.

  • 35.

    Kumar J, Muntner P, Kaskel FJ, Hailpern SM, Melamed ML. Prevalence and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in US children: NHANES 2001–2004. Pediatrics 2009;124: e362–70.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 36.

    Weng FL, Shults J, Leonard MB, Stallings VA, Zemel BS. Risk factors for low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in otherwise healthy children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:150–8.Google Scholar

  • 37.

    Olson ML, Maalouf NM, Oden JD, White PC, Hutchison MR. Vitamin D deficiency in obese children and its relationship to glucose homeostasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:279–85.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 38.

    Zhu Z, Zhan J, Shao J, Chen W, Chen L, et al. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children aged 1 month to 16 years in hangzhou, china. BMC Public Health 2012;12:126.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 39.

    Rajakumar K, Fernstrom JD, Holick MF, Janosky JE, Greenspan SL. Vitamin D status and response to vitamin D(3) in obese vs. non-obese African American children. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16:90–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 40.

    Wagner CL, Greer FR, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 2008; 122:1142–52.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Holly Kramer, MD, MPH, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA, Phone: +1-708-327-9039, Fax: +1-708-327-9007, E-mail:


Received: 2013-06-14

Accepted: 2013-12-02

Published Online: 2014-03-12

Published in Print: 2014-05-01


Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2013-0246.

Export Citation

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston. Copyright Clearance Center

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
MIN LIU, XIANCHI LI, RONGRONG SUN, YI ZENG, SHUANG CHEN, and PEIYING ZHANG
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 2016, Volume 11, Number 4, Page 1189
[2]
Denise L. Jacobson, Charles B. Stephensen, Tracie L. Miller, Kunjal Patel, Janet S. Chen, Russell B. Van Dyke, Ayesha Mirza, Gertrud U. Schuster, Rohan Hazra, Angela Ellis, Sean S. Brummel, Mitchell E. Geffner, Margarita Silio, Stephen A. Spector, and Linda A. DiMeglio
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2017, Volume 76, Number 1, Page 33
[3]
Riad Abou Zahr, Edward Vincent S. Faustino, Thomas Carpenter, Paul Kirshbom, E. Kevin Hall, John T. Fahey, and Sarah B. Kandil
Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, 2017, Volume 32, Number 8, Page 508
[4]
Hiba Al-Zubeidi, Lucero Leon-Chi, and Ron S Newfield
Pediatric Diabetes, 2016, Volume 17, Number 8, Page 592
[5]
Riad Abou-Zahr and Sarah B. Kandil
Pediatric Research, 2015, Volume 77, Number 1-2, Page 164
[6]
Joy Weydert
Children, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2, Page 208

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in