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Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

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Prevalence of risk of deficiency and inadequacy of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in US children: NHANES 2003–2006

Vytas P. Karalius1 / Daniel Zinn2, 3 / James Wu2 / Guichan Cao1 / Carla Minutti2 / Amy Luke1 / 1 / Ramon Durazo-Arvizu1

1Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA

2Department of Pediatrics, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA

3Department of Internal Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA

Corresponding author: Holly Kramer, MD, MPH, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA, Phone: +1-708-327-9039, Fax: +1-708-327-9007, E-mail:

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. Volume 27, Issue 5-6, Pages 461–466, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2013-0246, March 2014

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Aim: To assess prevalence and population estimates of increased risk of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency and inadequacy in US children based on the current Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary References Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium guidelines.

Methods: The analysis was limited to a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized US children and adolescents aged 6–18 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed in 2003–2006 and had complete data on 25(OH)D measurements (n=2877). The 25(OH)D levels were adjusted for assay drift and prevalence, and population estimates of increased risk of 25(OH)D deficiency (<12 ng/mL), risk of inadequacy (<16 ng/mL), and adequacy (>20 ng/mL) were calculated.

Results: Overall, 4.61% of children and adolescents are at increased risk of deficiency (population estimate 2.5 million) and 10.3% are at risk of inadequacy (population estimate 5.5 million) based on the Institute of Medicine guidelines.

Conclusion: Approximately 10.3% of US children aged 6–18 years (population estimate 5.5 million) have 25(OH)D levels <16 ng/mL.

Keywords: deficiency; IOM guidelines; prevalence; supplementation; vitamin D

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