Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Ed. by Bereket, Abdullah / Darendeliler, Feyza / Dattani, Mehul / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Fei Hong / Mericq, Veronica / Toppari, Jorma


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.239

CiteScore 2018: 1.22

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.507
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.562

Online
ISSN
2191-0251
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 27, Issue 7-8

Issues

Evaluation of lipid and glucose metabolism and cortisol and thyroid hormone levels in obese appropriate for gestational age (AGA) born and non-obese small for gestational age (SGA) born prepubertal Slovak children

Zuzana Blusková
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Medicine, 2nd Department of Paediatrics, Comenius University, University Children’s Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ľudmila Koštálová
  • Faculty of Medicine, 2nd Department of Paediatrics, Comenius University, University Children’s Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Peter Celec
  • Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Molecular Biomedicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Eva Vitáriušová
  • Faculty of Medicine, 2nd Department of Paediatrics, Comenius University, University Children’s Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Zuzana Pribilincová
  • Faculty of Medicine, 2nd Department of Paediatrics, Comenius University, University Children’s Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Marianna Maršálková / Jana Šemberová / Tatiana Kyselová / Anna Hlavatá
  • Faculty of Medicine, 2nd Department of Paediatrics, Comenius University, University Children’s Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ László Kovács
  • Faculty of Medicine, 2nd Department of Paediatrics, Comenius University, University Children’s Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-03-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2013-0334

Abstract

Aim: Obesity is the major determinant of metabolic syndrome. Being born small for gestational age (SGA) may be co-responsible. We aimed at evaluating the association between 1. obesity and 2. being born SGA and the presence of endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in prepubertal Slovak children.

Methods: The study included 98 children, aged 3–10.9 years: 36 AGA-born obese children (OB), 31 SGA-born children (SGA) and 31 appropriate for gestational age born non-obese children (AGA). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, fT4, TSH, cortisol and insulin were determined. HOMA-IR was calculated. Personal data about birth weight and length and family history were collected. Actual anthropometric measurement was done.

Results: In every group, high prevalence of positive family history of metabolic disorder was found. In comparison with AGA children, OB children were taller (p<0.01) with higher body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and had increased insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p<0.001), decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p<0.001), and a trend to higher cortisol levels (p=0.069) was noted. SGA-born children were shorter (p<0.001), with BMI comparable to the AGA group. They had higher glucose levels (p<0.001), a trend to decreased HDL levels (p=0.085) and increased fT4 levels (p<0.001). A three-fold higher occurrence of metabolic abnormalities was present in obese children and twice more metabolic abnormalities were present in SGA-born children in comparison with AGA-born children.

Conclusions: SGA-born children are more prone to developing endocrine-metabolic abnormalities than non-obese children born AGA, but they are at less risk than obese AGA-born children. We should provide specialized care for obese children already in prepubertal age and pay attention to SGA-born children.

Keywords: cortisol; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; obesity; SGA; thyroid function

References

  • 1.

    de Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:1257–64.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 2.

    Steinberger J, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, Hayman L, Lustig RH, et al. Progress and challenges in metabolicsyndrome in children and adolescents: a scientificstatement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation 2009;119:628–47.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Lobstein T, Jackson-Leach R. Estimated burden of paediatric obesity and co-morbidities in Europe. Part 2. Numbers of children with indicators of obesity-related disease. Int J Pediatr Obes 2006;1:33–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 4.

    Gündüz Z, Dursun İ, Tülpar S, Baştuğ F, Baykan A, et al. Increased endothelial microparticles in obese and overweight children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2012;25:1111–7.Web of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Vitáriusová E, Babinská K, Kostálová L, Rosinský J, Hlavatá A, et al. Food intake, leisure time activities and the prevalence of obesity in schoolchildren in Slovakia. Cent Eur J Public Health 2010;18:192–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    Vitáriušová E, Koštálová L, Pribilincová Z, Hlavatá A, Kovács L. Occurence of metabolic syndrome and its components in obese children. Čes-slov Pediat 2010;65:55–61.Google Scholar

  • 7.

    Saenger P, Czernichow P, Hughes I, Reiter EO. Small for gestational age: short stature and beyond. Endocr Rev 2007;28:219–51.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 8.

    Bateson P, Barker D, Clutton-Brock T, Deb D, D’Udine B, et al. Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 2004;430:419–21.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Jaquet D, Deghmoun S, Chevenne D, Collin D, Czernichow P, et al. Dynamic change in adiposity from fetal to postnatal life is involved in the metabolic syndrome associated with reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 2005;48:849–55.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Hernández MI, Mericq V. Metabolic syndrome in children born small-for-gestational age. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2011;55:583–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 11.

    Atabek ME, Pirgon O. Assessment of insulin sensitivity from measurements in fasting state and during an oral glucose tolerance test in obese children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2007;20:187–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Keskin M, Kurtoglu S, Kendirci M, Atabek ME, Yazici C. Homeostasis model assessment is more reliable than the fasting glucose/insulin ratio and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for assessing insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2005;115:500–3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Ghergherechi R, Tabrizi A. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2010;6:345–9.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14.

    Tresaco B, Bueno G, Moreno LA, Garagorri JM, Bueno M. Insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents. J Physiol Biochem 2003;59:217–23.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Valerio G, Licenziati MR, Iannuzzi A, Franzese A, Siani P, et al. Insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents from Southern Italy. Insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents from Southern Italy. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2006;16:279–84.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Romero JB, Briones E, Palacios GC, Castelán K. Subclinical metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity in prepubertal Mexican schoolchildren. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2010;23:589–94.PubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Fabricius-Bjerre S, Jensen RB, Færch KV, Larsen TK, Mølgaard C, et al. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence. PLoS One 2011;6:20595.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18.

    Deng HZ, Li YH, Su Z, Ma HM, Huang YF, et al. Association between height and weight catch-up growth with insulin resistance in pre-pubertal Chinese children born small for gestational age at two different ages. Eur J Pediatr 2011;170:75–80.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 19.

    Faienza MF, Brunetti G, Ventura A, D’Aniello M, Pepe T, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in prepubertal children born small for gestational age: influence of rapid weight catch-up growth. Horm Res Paediatr 2013;79:103–9.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    Arends NJ, Boonstra VH, Duivenvoorden HJ, Hofman PL, Cutfield WS, et al. Reduced insulin sensitivity and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in short prepubertal children born small for gestational age (SGA). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005;62:44–50.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21.

    Chen H, Zhang H, Tang W, Xi Q, Liu X, et al. Thyroid function and morphology in overweight and obese children and adolescents in a Chinese population. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013;26:489–96.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 22.

    Aypak C, Türedi O, Yüce A, Görpelioğlu S. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in nutritionally obese children and metabolic co-morbidity. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013;22:1–6.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 23.

    Radhakishun NN, van Vliet M, von Rosenstiel IA, Weijer O, Beijnen JH, et al. Increasing thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in euthyroid obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013;26:531–7.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 24.

    Gertig AM, Niechciał E, Skowrońska B. Thyroid axis alterations in childhood obesity. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2012;18:116–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 25.

    Pacifico L, Anania C, Ferraro F, Andreoli GM, Chiesa C. Thyroid function in childhood obesity and metabolic comorbidity. Clin Chim Acta 2012;413:396–405.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 26.

    Bagnoli F, Farmeschi L, Nappini S, Grosso S. Thyroid function in small for gestational age newborns: a review. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2013;5:2–7.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Lem AJ, de Rijke YB, van Toor H, de Ridder MA, Visser TJ, et al. Serum thyroid hormone levels in healthy children from birth to adulthood and in short children born small for gestational age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:3170–78.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 28.

    de Kort SW, Willemsen RH, van der Kaay DC, van Dijk M, Visser TJ, et al. Thyroid function in short children born small-for-gestational age (SGA) before and during GH treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008;69:318–22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 29.

    Kokkoris P, Pi-Sunyer FX. Obesity and endocrine disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2003;32:895–914.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 30.

    Douyon L, Schteingart DE. Effect of obesity and starvation on thyroid hormone, growth hormone, and cortisol secretion. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2002;31:173–89.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 31.

    Prodam F, Ricotti R, Agarla V, Parlamento S, Genoni G, et al. High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med 2013;20:11–44.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 32.

    Levitt NS, Lambert EV, Woods D, Hales CN, Andrew R, et al. Impaired glucose tolerance and elevated blood pressure in low birth weight, nonobese, young South African adults: early programming of cortisol axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4611–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 33.

    Szathmári M, Reusz G, Tulassay T. Low birth weight, adrenal and sex hormones and their correlation with carbohydrate metabolism and cardiovascular physiology, investigated in young adulthood. Orv Hetil 2000;141:1967–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 34.

    Todorova B, Salonen M, Jääskeläinen J, Tapio A, Jääskeläinen T, et al. Adrenocortical hormonal activity in 20-year-old subjects born small or appropriate for gestational age. Horm Res Paediatr 2012;77:298–304.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Zuzana Blusková, Faculty of Medicine, 2nd Department of Paediatrics, Comenius University, University Children’s Hospital, Limbová 1, 833 40 Bratislava, Slovakia, E-mail:


Received: 2013-08-16

Accepted: 2014-02-14

Published Online: 2014-03-29

Published in Print: 2014-07-01


Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume 27, Issue 7-8, Pages 693–699, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2013-0334.

Export Citation

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Fukuan Du, Yan Li, Yongkai Tang, Shengyan Su, Juhua Yu, Fan Yu, Jianlin Li, Hongxia Li, Meiyao Wang, and Pao Xu
Aquaculture, 2018
[3]
Hiba S. Al-Amodi, Nazik Altayeb Abdelbasit, Samir H. Fatani, Abdullatif Taha Babakr, and Maowia Mohamed Mukhtar
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 2017
[4]
Kwanchai Pirojsakul, Apinya Thanapinyo, and Pracha Nuntnarumit
Pediatric Nephrology, 2017, Volume 32, Number 6, Page 1053

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in