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Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Ed. by Bereket, Abdullah / Darendeliler, Feyza / Dattani, Mehul / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Fei Hong / Mericq, Veronica / Toppari, Jorma

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Volume 29, Issue 9


Hormone disorder and vitamin deficiency in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)

Keziban Aslı Bala / Murat Doğan
  • Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, Van, Turkey
  • Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, Van, Turkey
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sultan Kaba
  • Department of Pediatrics, Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, Van, Turkey
  • Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, Van, Turkey
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Tuba Mutluer / Oktay Aslan / Sekibe Zehra Doğan
Published Online: 2016-08-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2015-0473



The aim of this study was to analyze thyroid hormones and antibodies, ferritin, vitamins B12 and D, adrenal and gonadal steroid levels, and celiac antibodies in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).


Between February 2014 and July 2014, a total of 77 children and adolescents (31 girls, 46 boys) who were admitted to the Van Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. The study population was divided into three groups including ADHD (n=34), ASD (n=16), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=27). The diagnosis of ADHD was made on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and DSM-4 Turkish version with the diagnostic interview and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale (DBDRS). The diagnosis of ASD was based on the DSM-4 and DSM-5 Turkish version with the diagnostic interview and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 A.M.


There was a statistically significant difference in vitamin B12 and D levels and ferritin values among the three groups. The ASD group had the highest ferritin and the lowest vitamins B12 and D levels. Vitamin D levels of the ADHD group were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls.


Our study results highlight the importance of supplementation of vitamins B12 and D in the ASD and ADHD patients.

Keywords: adrenal and gonadal steroids; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); autism spectrum disorder (ASD); thyroid hormones; vitamin B12; vitamin D


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About the article

Corresponding author: Keziban Aslı Bala, MD, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, 65100 Van, Turkey, Phone: +90 543 647 22 98

Received: 2015-12-17

Accepted: 2016-07-18

Published Online: 2016-08-22

Published in Print: 2016-09-01

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume 29, Issue 9, Pages 1077–1082, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2015-0473.

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