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Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Ed. by Bereket, Abdullah / Darendeliler, Feyza / Dattani, Mehul / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Fei Hong / Mericq, Veronica / Toppari, Jorma

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Volume 30, Issue 4


Associations between obesity, adverse behavioral patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent inhabitants of a Greek island

Anastasia Garoufi
  • Corresponding author
  • Second Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “P. & A. Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Evangelos E. Grammatikos
  • Second Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “P. & A. Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Anastasios Kollias
  • Hypertension Center STRIDE-7, Third University Department of Medicine, Sotiria Hospital, Athens, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Emmanuel Grammatikos / George S. Stergiou
  • Hypertension Center STRIDE-7, Third University Department of Medicine, Sotiria Hospital, Athens, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Alexandra Soldatou
  • Second Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “P. & A. Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-03-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2016-0134



Excess weight, unhealthy lifestyle habits and their sequelae have become a well-recognized public health problem in most countries. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship of adolescent overweight/obesity with behavioral habits and their association with blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile.


Anthropometric parameters, lifestyle, BP and lipid profile of 736 adolescents were evaluated cross-sectionally. The classifications of normal weight, overweight and obese were based on BMI z-scores.


About 42.1% of adolescents were overweight/obese, 11.3% were smokers, 33.2% consumed alcohol and 34% reported low activity. Males began smoking earlier, consumed alcohol more often, exercised less and spent more screen time than females. Alcohol consumption was more prevalent among smokers and was associated with higher BP and dyslipidemia. Smokers exercised less intensely and had lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) than non-smokers. Obesity was a risk factor for higher BP and dyslipidemia. Longer screen time was associated with higher triglycerides, while intense physical activity with lower systolic BP.


Obesity is related to an adverse lipid and BP profile during adolescence. Clustering of hazardous habits was observed, which is known to aggravate the cardiovascular risk.

Keywords: alcohol consumption; cigarette smoking; lipid profile; physical activity; unhealthy habits


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About the article

Corresponding author: Anastasia Garoufi, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Second Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “P. & A. Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Thivon and Levadias str, Goudi, 11527, Athens, Greece, Phone: 0030-213-2009261

Received: 2016-04-05

Accepted: 2017-01-16

Published Online: 2017-03-20

Published in Print: 2017-04-01

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 445–454, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2016-0134.

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