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Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Ed. by Bereket, Abdullah / Darendeliler, Feyza / Dattani, Mehul / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Fei Hong / Mericq, Veronica / Toppari, Jorma

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.239

CiteScore 2018: 1.22

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.507
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Volume 31, Issue 2


Association of sodium intake with insulin resistance in Korean children and adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010

Yong Min Kim / So Hyun Kim / Young Suk Shim
Published Online: 2018-01-05 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2017-0362



This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sodium intake and insulin resistance indices.


A total of 718 Korean children and adolescents (411 boys) aged 10–18 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were included in the study. The urinary sodium to urinary creatinine ratio was used as a surrogate for sodium intake. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were used as indices of insulin resistance.


The mean urinary sodium to urinary creatinine ratio was 11.34 in males and 10.17 in females. The urinary sodium to urinary creatinine ratio was significantly positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.165, p<0.001) and inversely correlated with QUICKI (r=−0.181, p<0.001) in Pearson’s correlation analyses. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the urinary sodium to urinary creatinine ratio was independently and significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR (β=0.073, p=0.018) and significantly inversely associated with QUICKI (β=−0.080, p=0.007) after adjustment for possible confounders. HOMA-IR was independently and significantly positively associated with the urinary sodium to urinary creatinine ratio (β=0.087, p=0.018), whereas QUICKI was independently and significantly negatively associated with the urinary sodium to urinary creatinine ratio (β=−0.097, p=0.009) after controlling for confounders.


Our results suggest that sodium intake, as estimated by the urinary sodium to urinary creatinine ratio, may be independently associated with insulin resistance in children and adolescents.

Keywords: children; HOMA-IR; insulin resistance; QUICKI; sodium intake; urinary sodium to urinary creatinine ratio


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About the article

Corresponding author: Young Suk Shim, MD, Department of Pediatrics, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 7, Keunjaebong-gil, Hwaseong-si, 18450 Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea, Phone: +82-31-8086-2560, Fax: +82-31-8086-2029

Received: 2017-09-14

Accepted: 2017-11-16

Published Online: 2018-01-05

Published in Print: 2018-01-26

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 117–125, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2017-0362.

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