NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. Lancet 2016;387:1513–30.Web of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet 2017;390:2627–42.PubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Chirita-Emandi A, Barbu CG, Cinteza EE, Chesaru BI, Gafencu M, et al. Overweight and underweight prevalence trends in children from Romania – pooled analysis of cross-sectional studies between 2006 and 2015. Obes Facts 2016;9:206–20.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Bell JA, Kivimaki M, Hamer M. Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev 2014;15:504–15.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Bacha F, Saad R, Gungor N, Arslanian SA. Are obesity-related metabolic risk factors modulated by the degree of insulin resistance in adolescents? Diabetes Care 2006;29:1599–604.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dupuis J, Langenberg C, Prokopenko I, Saxena R, Soranzo N, et al. New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk. Nat Genet 2010; 42:105–16.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Scott RA, Lagou V, Welch RP, Wheeler E, Montasser ME, et al. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways. Nature Genetics 2012;44:991.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Povel CM, Boer JM, Onland-Moret NC, Dollé ME, Feskens EJ, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in insulin resistance, weight regulation, lipid metabolism and inflammation in relation to metabolic syndrome: an epidemiological study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2012;11:133.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Sandholt CH, Vestmar MA, Bille DS, Borglykke A, Almind K, et al. Studies of metabolic phenotypic correlates of 15 obesity associated gene variants. PLoS One 2011;6:e23531.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, et al. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ 2007;85:660–7.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, et al. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985;28:412–9.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Magge SN, Goodman E, Armstrong SC, Committee on Nutrition, Section on Endocrinology, Section on Obesity. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: shifting the focus to cardiometabolic risk factor clustering. Pediatrics 2017;140:e1–e12. pii: e20171603.Google Scholar
Moran A, Jacobs DR, Steinberger J, Steffen LM, Pankow JS, et al. Changes in insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk during adolescence: establishment of differential risk in males and females. Circulation 2008;117:2361–8.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz B, Jacobs DR, Moran A, Steinberger J, Hong C-P, et al. Measurement of insulin sensitivity in children: comparison between the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and surrogate measures. Diabetes Care 2008;31: 783–8.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
van der AM, Knibbe CA, Boer A de, van der VM. Definition of insulin resistance affects prevalence rate in pediatric patients: a systematic review and call for consensus. Metabol 2016;30:123–31.Google Scholar
Brar PC, Mengwall L, Franklin BH, Fierman AH. Screening obese children and adolescents for prediabetes and/or type 2 diabetes in pediatric practices: a validation study. Clin Pediatr 2014;53:771–6.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
van der Aa MP, Farsani FS, Kromwijk LA, de Boer A, Knibbe CA, et al. How to screen obese children at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus? Clin Pediatr 2014;53:337–42.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2018-12-18
Published in Print: 2019-01-28
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: Academy of Science of Moldova (Program 16.80012.04.33F), Center of Genomic Medicine of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes” Timisoara (POSCCE-A2-O2.2.1-2013-1), Internal Competition, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes” Timisoara (Program II-C4-TC-2016), Romania-Moldova bilateral project funded by the Academy of Science of Moldova and ANCS from Romania (Project 16.80012.04.33F).
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.