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Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

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Vitamin D status in Israeli pediatric type 1 diabetes patients: the AWeSoMe Study Group experience and literature review

Judith Brody / Orit Pinhas-Hamiel
  • Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • Pediatric Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Safra Children’s Hospital, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel
  • Juvenile Diabetes Center, Maccabi Health Care Services, Raanana, Israel
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Zohar Landau
  • Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • Juvenile Diabetes Center, Maccabi Health Care Services, Raanana, Israel
  • Pediatric Diabetes Service, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Adi Adar
  • Pediatric Endocrinology Service, Division of Pediatrics, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Zerifin, Israel
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Tzvy Bistritzer
  • Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • Pediatric Endocrinology Service, Division of Pediatrics, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Zerifin, Israel
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Marianna Rachmiel
  • Corresponding author
  • Pediatric endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin 70300, Israel
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-10-19 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2016-0137



The prevalence of both vitamin D (VitD) deficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased worldwide over the last few decades. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of VitD deficiency and insufficiency among Israeli youth with T1DM and (2) to assess the association between VitD status, seasonality and T1D glycemic control characteristics.


This was a multi-centered, cross-sectional study. VitD levels were routinely tested during the years 2008–2011 in T1DM patients aged up to 21 years. Medical records were reviewed for demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics.


The study population consisted of 199 participants (53% males), mean age 12.24±4.11 years, mean T1DM duration 3.77±3.43 years. VitD levels were within the normal range in 19.6%, insufficient (15–29 ng/mL, 37–72 nmol/L) in 62.3% and deficient (<15 ng/mL, <37 nmol/L) in 18.1%. Mean VitD level was higher during the summer than during spring, autumn and winter (28.65 ng/mL, 23.16 ng/mL, 21.65 ng/mL, 17.55 ng/mL, respectively, p<0.001). Mean VitD level was higher among secular patients compared to the religious (whole-year heavily dressed) population (23.57 ng/mL, 15.54 ng/mL, respectively, p<0.001). VitD level was negatively associated with body mass index calculation of standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and age at diagnosis (r=−0.171, p=0.016; r=−0.149, p=0.043; r=−0.150, p=0.037, respectively). No association was demonstrated with disease duration and glycemic control indices and metabolic parameters.


VitD insufficiency is largely prevalent among Israeli youth with T1DM, as is in Israeli youth in general. The VitD level is associated with seasonality, clothing habits and BMI.

Keywords: glycemic control; type 1 diabetes mellitus; vitamin D


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About the article

Corresponding author: Marianna Rachmiel, MD, Director, Pediatric endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin 70300, Israel, Phone: 972-8-9542007, Fax: 972-8-9779136

Received: 2016-04-06

Accepted: 2016-08-29

Published Online: 2016-10-19

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 20160137, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2016-0137.

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