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Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, MD, FRCOG, Joachim W.

Ed. by Bancalari, Eduardo / Chappelle, Joseph / Chervenak, Frank A. / D'Addario , Vincenzo / Genc, Mehmet R. / Greenough, Anne / Grunebaum, Amos / Konje, Justin C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Romero, Roberto / Zalud, MD PhD, Ivica

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.361
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.578

CiteScore 2018: 1.29

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.522
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.602

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Volume 33, Issue 5


The assessment of fetal behavior in early pregnancy: comparison between 2D and 4D sonographic scanning

Wiku Andonotopo / Marijana Medic / Aida Salihagic-Kadic / Dragan Milenkovic
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Sveti Duh Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Nerea Maiz / Elena Scazzocchio
Published Online: 2005-09-13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2005.073


Aim: To determine the accuracy of 4D sonography in the assessment of embryonic and early fetal motor activity in the first trimester of normal pregnancy, in comparison to the 2D sonography.

Methods: Fifty pregnant women between 6–14 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy were assigned for the investigation. Two dimensional and four dimensional recordings were displayed on the screen and recorded on the videotape during the 15 minutes observation period.

Results: General body, head and limb movements recorded by 2D sonography were notable by 4D technique in the same gestational age. These movements were presented collectively with maximum, minimum, and median frequencies during 15 minutes observation period. Spearman rank order correlation reached statistical significance (P<0.05) between the frequencies of all observed movement patterns assessed by two different techniques. Several movement patterns, such as sideway bending, hiccup, breathing movements, mouth opening and facial movements could be observed only by 2D sonographic technique in this period of gestation.

Conclusion: Presently, both 2D and 4D methods are required for the assessment of early fetal motor development and motor behavior. It is reasonable to expect that such technological improvement may provide some new information about the intrauterine motor activity and facilitate the prenatal detection of some neurological disorders.

Keywords: Fetal movements; four-dimensional ultrasound; motor behavior; motor development; normal pregnacy; two-dimensional ultrasound

About the article

Correspondence author: Wiku Andonotopo MD Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Medical School University of Zagreb Sveti Duh Hospital Sveti Duh 64 Zagreb Croatia Tel.: +385-91-8895288 Fax: +385-1-3745534

Received: April 7, 2005

Revised: June 1, 2005

Accepted: June 3, 2005

Published Online: 2005-09-13

Published in Print: 2005-10-01

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 406–414, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2005.073.

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