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Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, Joachim W.

Editorial Board Member: / Bancalari, Eduardo / Milner, Anne / Genc, Mehmet R. / Chervenak, Frank A. / Chappelle, Joseph / Bergmann, Renate L. / Bernardes, J.F. / Bevilacqua, G. / Blickstein, Isaac / Cabero Roura, Luis / Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier / Carrera, Jose M. / D`Addario, Vincenzo / D'Alton, MD, Mary E. / Dimitrou, G. / Grunebaum, Amos / Hentschel, Roland / Köpcke, W. / Kawabata, Ichiro / Keirse, Marc J.N.C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Lee, Ben H. / Levene, Malcolm / Lockwood, Charles J. / Marsal, Karel / Makatsariya, Alexander / Nishida, Hiroshi / Papp, Zoltán / Pejaver, Ranjan Kumar / Pooh, Ritsuko K. / Romero, Roberto / Saugstad, Ola D. / Schenker, Joseph G. / Sen, Cihat / Seri, Istvan / Vetter, Klaus / Winn, Hung N. / Young, Bruce K. / Zimmermann, Roland

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In This Section
Volume 36, Issue 1 (Jan 2008)


The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

Berthold Koletzko
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Munich, Germany
/ Eric Lien
  • 2Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA
/ Carlo Agostoni
  • 3Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Italy
/ Hansjosef Böhles
  • 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Frankfurt, Germany
/ Cristina Campoy
  • 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Granada, Spain
/ Irene Cetin
  • 6Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, IRCCS Policlinico, Mangiagalli and Regina Elena, University of Milan, Italy
/ Tamas Decsi
  • 7University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary
/ Joachim W. Dudenhausen
  • 8Department of Obstetrics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
/ Cristophe Dupont
  • 9Hopital St Vincent de Paul, Paris, France
/ Stewart Forsyth
  • 10Department of Pediatrics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK
/ Irene Hoesli
  • 11Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Basel, Switzerland
/ Wolfgang Holzgreve
  • 12Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Basel, Switzerland
/ Alexandre Lapillonne
  • 13Rene Descartes Paris 5 University, Paris, France and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
/ Guy Putet
  • 14Department of Pediatrics, Hôpital de la Croix Rousse, Lyon, France
/ Niels J. Secher
  • 15Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidore, Denmark
/ Mike Symonds
  • 16Academic Division of Child Health, Center for Reproduction and Early Life, University of Nottingham, UK
/ Hania Szajewska
  • 17Department of Pediatrics, The Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
/ Peter Willatts
  • 18School of Psychology, University of Dundee, UK
/ Ricardo Uauy
  • 19Department of Human Nutrition, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Published Online: 2008-01-10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2008.001


This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines for health-care providers supported by the World Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Early Nutrition Academy, and the Child Health Foundation are provided. The fetus and neonate should receive LC-PUFA in amounts sufficient to support optimal visual and cognitive development. Moreover, the consumption of oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy reduces the risk for early premature birth. Pregnant and lactating women should aim to achieve an average daily intake of at least 200 mg DHA. For healthy term infants, we recommend and fully endorse breastfeeding, which supplies preformed LC-PUFA, as the preferred method of feeding. When breastfeeding is not possible, we recommend use of an infant formula providing DHA at levels between 0.2 and 0.5 weight percent of total fat, and with the minimum amount of AA equivalent to the contents of DHA. Dietary LC-PUFA supply should continue after the first six months of life, but currently there is not sufficient information for quantitative recommendations.

Keywords: Alpha-linolenic acid; arachidonic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; infant nutrition; linoleic acid; maternal health; maternal nutrition; perinatal development

About the article

Corresponding author: Berthold Koletzko, MD Department of Pediatrics Dr von Hauner Children's Hospital University of Munich Lindwurmstr. 4 D-80337 München Germany

Published Online: 2008-01-10

Published in Print: 2008-01-01

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN (Online) 16193997, ISSN (Print) 03005577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2008.001. Export Citation

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