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Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, Joachim W.

Editorial Board Member: / Bancalari, Eduardo / Milner, Anne / Genc, Mehmet R. / Chervenak, Frank A. / Chappelle, Joseph / Bergmann, Renate L. / Bernardes, J.F. / Bevilacqua, G. / Blickstein, Isaac / Cabero Roura, Luis / Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier / Carrera, Jose M. / D`Addario, Vincenzo / D'Alton, MD, Mary E. / Dimitrou, G. / Grunebaum, Amos / Hentschel, Roland / Köpcke, W. / Kawabata, Ichiro / Keirse, Marc J.N.C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Lee, Ben H. / Levene, Malcolm / Lockwood, Charles J. / Marsal, Karel / Makatsariya, Alexander / Nishida, Hiroshi / Papp, Zoltán / Pejaver, Ranjan Kumar / Pooh, Ritsuko K. / Romero, Roberto / Saugstad, Ola D. / Schenker, Joseph G. / Sen, Cihat / Seri, Istvan / Vetter, Klaus / Winn, Hung N. / Young, Bruce K. / Zimmermann, Roland

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In This Section
Volume 38, Issue 6 (Nov 2010)


The expression pattern of two novel cytokines (IL-24 and IL-29) in human fetal membranes

Judith Nace
  • The Perinatal Research Center, Centennial Women's Hospital, Nashville, TN, USA
  • Women's Hospital, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
/ Stephen J. Fortunato
  • The Perinatal Research Center, Centennial Women's Hospital, Nashville, TN, USA
/ Holger Maul
  • Women's Hospital, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
/ Ramkumar Menon
  • The Perinatal Research Center, Centennial Women's Hospital, Nashville, TN, USA
  • Department of Epidemiology and Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Published Online: 2010-08-13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm.2010.093


Objective: Interleukin (IL)-24 and -29 are novel cytokines, produced by immune cells in response to microbial antigens. The functions of these cytokines in the reproductive system are unknown. We examined the expression pattern of IL-24 and IL-29 in human fetal membranes from preterm and term births and in in vitro in response to microbial antigens.

Methods: Fetal membranes collected from cesarean sections at term (normal, not in labor) were placed in culture for 48 h. These membranes were then stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or viral antigen poly-inosinic and cytidylic acid (polyIC) for an additional 24 h. Amniotic fluids (AF) and fetal membranes were also collected from preterm and term deliveries. IL-24 and IL-29 expressions were studied by RT-PCR. ELISA documented culture media and AF cytokine concentrations.

Results: IL-24 and IL-29 expressions were seen in cultured fetal membranes regardless of stimulation. Expressions were also found in preterm and term labor membranes, but not in non-labor tissues at term. IL-24 concentrations were higher after LPS stimulation whereas IL-29 concentrations were higher after polyIC-stimulation. AF analysis did not detect either of the cytokines either preterm or term.

Conclusion: This is the first study to report IL-24 and IL-29 expressions in human fetal membranes. Higher concentrations of these cytokines in response to distinct infectious stimuli suggest different pathways for fetal immune response during infection.

Keywords: Amniotic fluids; interleukin; polymerase chain reaction; preterm birth

About the article

Corresponding author: Ramkumar Menon, PhD The Perinatal Research Center 2300 Patterson St. Nashville TN 37203 USA Fax: +1-615-342-6541

Received: 2010-01-06

Revised: 2010-03-27

Accepted: 2010-05-01

Published Online: 2010-08-13

Published Online: 2010-08-13

Published in Print: 2010-11-01

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm.2010.093.

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