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Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, Joachim W.

Editorial Board Member: / Bancalari, Eduardo / Milner, Anne / Genc, Mehmet R. / Chervenak, Frank A. / Chappelle, Joseph / Bergmann, Renate L. / Bernardes, J.F. / Bevilacqua, G. / Blickstein, Isaac / Cabero Roura, Luis / Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier / Carrera, Jose M. / D`Addario, Vincenzo / D'Alton, MD, Mary E. / Dimitrou, G. / Grunebaum, Amos / Hentschel, Roland / Köpcke, W. / Kawabata, Ichiro / Keirse, Marc J.N.C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Lee, Ben H. / Levene, Malcolm / Lockwood, Charles J. / Marsal, Karel / Makatsariya, Alexander / Nishida, Hiroshi / Ogata, Edward / Papp, Zoltán / Pejaver, Ranjan Kumar / Pooh, Ritsuko K. / Romero, Roberto / Saugstad, Ola D. / Schenker, Joseph G. / Sen, Cihat / Seri, Istvan / Vetter, Klaus / Winn, Hung N. / Young, Bruce K. / Zimmermann, Roland

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Somatic classification of neonates based on birth weight, length, and head circumference: quantification of the effects of maternal BMI and smoking

Manfred Voigt1 / Krisztina Zels2 / Florian Guthmann2 / Volker Hesse1 / Yvonne Görlich3 / 3

1German Center for Growth, Development, and Health Encouragement during Childhood and Youth, Berlin, Germany

2Department of Neonatology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

3Department of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

Corresponding author: Priv.-Doz. Sebastian Straube, BM BCh, MA (Oxon), DPhil Department of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine University Medical Center Göttingen Waldweg 37 B D-37073 Göttingen Germany Tel.: +49 551 39 8044 Fax: +49 551 39 6184

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 291–297, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm.2011.017, April 2011

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We defined neonates as small, appropriate, or large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, LGA) based on birth weight, length, and head circumference. We analyzed the effects on the somatic classification of maternal body mass index (BMI) (<18.5, 18.5–24.99, 25.0–29.99, ≥30) and smoking during pregnancy (0, 1–7, 8–14, ≥15 cigarettes daily). Data were from the German Perinatal Survey (1998–2000; 433,669 cases). The following refers to the classification by birth weight. In the normal maternal weight population SGA rates increased with cigarette consumption: 9.8%, 17.8%, 21.6%, and 25.4% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1–7, 8–14, and ≥15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In non-smoking underweight women the SGA rate was 17.4%. In underweight smokers of ≥15 cigarettes daily the SGA rate was 38.5% [odds ratio 5.77, 95% confidence interval 5.10–6.53, compared with normal weight non-smokers]. In the normal maternal weight population, LGA rates were 9.9%, 5.3%, 4.6%, and 3.5% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1–7, 8–14, and ≥15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In the obese, LGA rates were 20.9% (non-smokers) and 11.4% (≥15 cigarettes). Similar findings were obtained for the somatic classifications based on birth length and head circumference. Results for the various combinations of maternal BMI and smoking status in the three classification systems are described. Our findings may assist in individualized risk assessment for SGA and LGA births.

Keywords: Large for gestational age (LGA) rate; maternal body mass index (BMI); small for gestational age (SGA) rate; smoking during pregnancy; somatic classification of neonates

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