Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
In This Section

Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, Joachim W.

Editorial Board Member: / Bancalari, Eduardo / Milner, Anne / Genc, Mehmet R. / Chervenak, Frank A. / Chappelle, Joseph / Bergmann, Renate L. / Bernardes, J.F. / Bevilacqua, G. / Blickstein, Isaac / Cabero Roura, Luis / Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier / Carrera, Jose M. / D`Addario, Vincenzo / D'Alton, MD, Mary E. / Dimitrou, G. / Grunebaum, Amos / Hentschel, Roland / Köpcke, W. / Kawabata, Ichiro / Keirse, Marc J.N.C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Lee, Ben H. / Levene, Malcolm / Lockwood, Charles J. / Marsal, Karel / Makatsariya, Alexander / Nishida, Hiroshi / Papp, Zoltán / Pejaver, Ranjan Kumar / Pooh, Ritsuko K. / Romero, Roberto / Saugstad, Ola D. / Schenker, Joseph G. / Sen, Cihat / Seri, Istvan / Vetter, Klaus / Winn, Hung N. / Young, Bruce K. / Zimmermann, Roland

9 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.577
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.705

CiteScore 2016: 1.49

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.829
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.808

See all formats and pricing
In This Section
Volume 42, Issue 1 (Jan 2014)


Breastfeeding is natural but not always easy: intervention for common medical problems of breastfeeding mothers – a review of the scientific evidence

Renate L. Bergmann
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Obstetrics, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany
  • Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin/Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Klinik fuer Geburtsmedizin Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany
  • Email:
/ Karl E. Bergmann
  • Department of Obstetrics, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany
/ Katharina von Weizsäcker
  • Department of Obstetrics, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany
/ Monika Berns
  • Department of Neonatology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany
/ Wolfgang Henrich
  • Department of Obstetrics, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany
/ Joachim W. Dudenhausen
  • Charite University Medicine Berlin, Weill Cornell Medical College Qatar, Deputy Chief Medical Officer, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar
Published Online: 2013-09-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2013-0095


Natural processes do not always function perfectly. In breastfeeding, problems are encountered in up to 80% of mother-infant dyads. Altogether, in Western societies, the difficulties reduce the breastfeeding rate within the first months drastically. To deal with the problems of breastfeeding efficiently requires a profound understanding of its physiology, as well as of its psychological and social determinants. This review focuses on the current knowledge of breastfeeding physiology, only touching the psychosocial factors, which are included in the promotion strategies. Subsequently, it scrutinizes definitions, incidences, prevention, and treatment of breastfeeding problems faced most frequently by nursing mothers and their consultants. Not all measures used in counseling mothers and not all treatments for the most common medical problems withstand a careful evaluation on the basis of current scientific data. However, applying proven prevention strategies will significantly improve the well being of mothers and their infants, and may contribute to an affective attitude that increases the success, frequency, and duration of breastfeeding.

Keywords: Abscess; breastfeeding support; early contact; engorgement; lactational failure; lactogenesis; mastitis


  • [1]

    Abou-Dakn M, Fluhr JW, Gensch M, Wöckl A. Positive effects of HPA lanolin versus expressed breastmilk on painful and damaged nipples during lactation. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2011;24:27–35. [Crossref]

  • [2]

    Abou-Dakn M, Richard A, Schaefer-Graf, Wöckel A. Inflammatory breast-diseases during lactation: milk stasis, puerperal mastitis, abscess of the breast, and malignant tumors-current and evidence-based startegies for diagnosis and therapy. Breast Care. 2010;5:33–7.

  • [3]

    Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Clinical protocol #4: mastitis. Revision, May 2008. Breastfeed Med. 2008;3:177–80. [PubMed]

  • [4]

    Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Clinical protocol #20: engorgement. Breastfeed Med. 2009;4:111–3. [PubMed]

  • [5]

    Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Educational objectives and skills for the physician with respect to breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med. 2011;6:99–105.

  • [6]

    American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Policy statement. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e827–e41.

  • [7]

    Amir LH. Maternal smoking and reduced duration of breastfeeding: a review of possible mechanisms. Early Human Dev. 2001;64:45–67.

  • [8]

    Amir LH, Donath SN, Garland SM, Tabrizi SN, Bennett CM, Cullinane M, et al. Does Candida and/or Staphylococcus play a role in nipple and breast pain in lactation? A cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Br Med J Open. 2013;3:1–8.

  • [9]

    Amir LH, Forster D, McLachlan H, Lumley J. Incidence of breast abscess in lactating women. Report from an Australian cohort. Br J Obstet Gyneol. 2004;111:1378–81. [Crossref]

  • [10]

    Amorim Adegboye AR, Linne YM, Lourenco PMC. Diet or exercise, or both, for weight reduction in women after childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;3:CD5627.

  • [11]

    Anderson AM. Disruption of lactogenesis by retained placental fragments. J Hum Lact. 2001;17:142–4. [Crossref]

  • [12]

    Arroyo R, Martín V, Maldonado A, Jiménez E, Fernández L, Rodríguez JM. Treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation: antibiotics versus oral administration of lactobacilli isolated from breast milk. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1551–8. [Crossref]

  • [13]

    Aryeetey RNO, Marquis GS, Timms L, Lartey A, Brakohiapa L. Subclinical mastitis is common among Ghanaian women lactating 3–4 months postpartum. J Hum Lact. 2008;24:263–7. [Crossref]

  • [14]

    Bartick M, Stuebe A, Shealy KR, Walker M, Grummer-Strawn LM. Closing the quality gap: promoting evidence-based breastfeeding care in the hospital. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e793–809. [Crossref]

  • [15]

    Bergmann RL, Bergmann KE. Nutrition and growth in infancy. In: Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors. Human growth. Vol. 3. Neurobiology and nutrition. 2nd ed. New York, London: Plenum Press; 1986. p. 389–413.

  • [16]

    Bergmann KE, Bergmann RL, von Kries R, Böhm O, Richter R, Dudenhausen JW, et al. Early determinants of childhood overweight and adiposity in a birth cohort study. The role of breast-feeding. Int J Obes. 2003;27:162–72. [Crossref]

  • [17]

    Buryk M, Bloom D, Shope T. Efficacy of neonatal release of ankyloglossia: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2011;128:280–8. [Crossref]

  • [18]

    Campbell S. Recurrent plugged ducts. J Hum Lact. 2006;22:340–3. [Crossref]

  • [19]

    Casey CE, Neifert MR, Seacat JM, Neville MC. Nutrient intake by breast-fed infants during the first five days after birth. Am J Dis Child. 1986;140:933–6.

  • [20]

    Cattaneo A. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Founder’s Lecture 2011: inequalities and inequities in breastfeeding: an international perspective. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:3–9.

  • [21]

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding Report Card – United States, 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/2012BreastfeedingReportCard.pdf.

  • [22]

    Centuori S, Burmaz T, Ronfani L, Fragiacomo M, Quintero S, Pavan C, et al. Nipple care, sore nipples, and breastfeeding: a randomized trial. J Hum Lact. 1999;15:125–30. [Crossref]

  • [23]

    Chapman DJ. Evaluating the evidence. Is there an effective treatment for breast engorgement? J Hum Lact. 2011;27:82–3. [Crossref]

  • [24]

    Chapman DJ, Pérez-Escamilla R. Maternal perception of the onset of lactation is a valid, public health indicator of lactogenesis stage. J Nutr. 2000;130:2972–80.

  • [25]

    Christensson K, Nilsson BA, Stock S, Matthiesen AS, Uvnäs-Moberg K. Effect of nipple stimulation on uterine activity and plasma levels of oxytocin in full term, healthy, pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1989;68:205–10. [Crossref]

  • [26]

    Chua S, Arulkumaran S, Lim I, Selamat N, Ratnam SS. Influence of breastfeeding and nipple stimulation on postpartum uterine activity. Br J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;101:804–5. [Crossref]

  • [27]

    Coiro V, Alboni A, Gramellini D, Cigarini C, Bianconi L, Pignatti D, et al. Inhibition by ethanol of the oxytocin response to breast stimulation in normal women and the role of endogenous opioids. Acta Endocrinol. 1992;126:213–6.

  • [28]

    Colin WB, Scott JA. Breastfeeding reasons for starting, reasons for stopping and problems along the way. Breastfeed Rev. 2002;10:13–9.

  • [29]

    Colson SD, Meek JH, Hawdon JM. Optimal positions for the release of primitive neonatal reflexes stimulating breastfeeding. Early Hum Dev. 2008;84:441–9. [Crossref]

  • [30]

    Cotterman KJ. Reverse pressure softening: a simple tool to prepare areola for easier latching during engorgement. J Hum Lact. 2004;20:227–37. [Crossref]

  • [31]

    Cruz NJ, Korchin L. Breastfeeding after augmentation mammoplasty with saline implants. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;64:530–3.

  • [32]

    Cusack L, Brennan M. Lactational mastitis and breast abscess. Diagnosis and management in general practice. Aust Fam Phys. 2011;40:976–9.

  • [33]

    Daly SEJ, Hartmann PE. Infant demand and milk supply. Part 2: The short term control of milk synthesis in lactating women. J Hum Lact. 1995;11:27–37. [Crossref]

  • [34]

    Davanzo R, Cannioto Z, Ronfani L, Monasta L, Demarini S. Breastfeeding and neonatal weight loss in healthy term infants. J Hum Lact. 2013;29:45–53. [Crossref]

  • [35]

    De Carvalho M, Robertson S, Klaus MH. Does the duration and frequency of early breastfeeding affect nipple pain? Birth. 1984;11:81–4.

  • [36]

    De Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW, Borghi E. Comparison of the WHO Child Growth Standards and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts. J Nutr. 2007;137:144–8. http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/weight_for_age/en/index.html.

  • [37]

    Delgado S, Arroyo R, Martín R, Rodríguez JM. PCR-DGGE assessment of the bacterial diversity of breast milk in women with lactational infectious mastitis. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:51–6. [Crossref]

  • [38]

    Dewey KG. Maternal and fetal stress are associated with impaired lactogenesis in humans. J Nutr. 2001;131:3012S–5S.

  • [39]

    Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Lonnerdal B. Maternal versus infant factors related to breast milk intake and residual milk. The DARLING Study. Pediatrics. 1991;87:829–37.

  • [40]

    Dewey KG, Nommsen-Rivers L, Cohen RJ, Chantry CJ, Peerson JM. Delayed lactogenesis and excess neonatal weight loss are common across ethnic and socioeconomic categories of primiparous women in northern California. FASEB J (Abstract). 2009;23:344.7.

  • [41]

    Dewey KG, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Heinig MJ, Cohen RC. Risk factors for suboptimal infant breastfeeding behavior, delayed onset of lactation, and excess neonatal weight loss. Pediatrics. 2003;112:607–19. [Crossref]

  • [42]

    DiSantis KI, Collins BN, Fisher JO, Davey A. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle? Int J Behav Nutr Physical Activity. 2011;8:89–98. [Crossref]

  • [43]

    Dixon M, Khan LR. Treatment of breast infection. Br Med J. 2011;342:d396–402. [Crossref]

  • [44]

    Donath SM, Amir LH, ALSPAC Study Team. The relationship between maternal smoking and breastfeeding duration after adjustment for maternal infant feeding intention. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:1514–8.

  • [45]

    Dubois L, Girard M. Social inequalities in infant feeding during the first year of life. The Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (LSCDQ1998–2002). Public Health Nutr. 2003;6:773–83.

  • [46]

    Dyson L, McCormick FM, Renfrew MJ. Interventions for promoting the initiation of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;2:CD1688.

  • [47]

    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Scientific opinion on the appropriate age for the introduction of complementary feedings of infants. Eur Food Safety Authority J. 2009;1423:34–8.

  • [48]

    European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition. Breast-feeding, a commentary. JPGN. 2009;49:112–25.

  • [49]

    Evans K, Evans R, Simmer K. Effect of the method of breast feeding on breast engorgement, mastitis and infantile colic. Acta Paediatr. 1995;84:849–52. [Crossref]

  • [50]

    Feldman-Winter LB, Schanler RJ, O’Connor KG, Lawrence RA. Pediatricians and the promotion and support of breastfeeding. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162:1142–9. [Crossref]

  • [51]

    Fletcher D, Harris H. The implementation of the HOT program at the Royal Women’s Hospital. Breastfeeding Rev. 2000;8:19–23.

  • [52]

    Fomon SJ, Nelson SE. Size and growth. In: Fomon SJ, editor. Nutrition of normal infants. St. Louis, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, London, Philadelphia, Sydney, Toronto: Mosby; 1993. p. 36–84.

  • [53]

    Foxman B, D’Arcy H, Gillespie B. Lactation mastitis: occurrence and medical management among 946 breastfeeding women in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155:103–14.

  • [54]

    Hale TW, Bateman TL, Finkelman MA, Berens PD. The absence of Candida albicans in milk samples of women with clinical symptoms of ductal candidiasis. Breastfeed Med. 2009;4:57–61. [Crossref]

  • [55]

    Hartmann P, Sheriff J, Kent J. Maternal nutrition and the regulation of milk synthesis. Proc Nutr Soc. 1995;54:379–89. [Crossref]

  • [56]

    Holmes AV, McLeod AY, Thesing C, Kramer S, Howard C. Physician breastfeeding education leads to practice changes and improved clinical outcomes. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:403–8. [Crossref]

  • [57]

    Ingram J, Johnson D, Greenwood R. Breastfeeding in Bristol: teaching good positioning, and support from fathers and families. Midwifery. 2002;18:87–101. [Crossref]

  • [58]

    Jaafar SH, Jahanfar S, Angolkar M, Ho JJ. Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD7202.

  • [59]

    Jensen D, Wallace S, Kelsay P. LATCH: a breastfeeding charting system and documentation tool. J Obstst Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 1994;23:27–32. [Crossref]

  • [60]

    Jones E, Dimmock PW, Spencer SA. A randomised controlled trial to compare methods of milk expression after preterm delivery. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2001;85:F91–5. [Crossref]

  • [61]

    Kair LR, Kenron D, Etheredge K, Jaffe AC, Phillipi CA. Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e1101–7. [Crossref]

  • [62]

    Kanabar D, Randhawa M, Clayton P. Improvement of symptoms in infant colic following reduction of lactose load with lactase. J Human Nutr Diet. 2001;14:359–63. [Crossref]

  • [63]

    Katz KA, Nilsson I, Rasmussen KM. Danish health care providers’ perception of breastfeeding difficulty experienced by women who are obese, have large breasts, or both. J Hum Lact. 2010;26:138–47. [Crossref]

  • [64]

    Kent JC, Geddes DT, Hepworth AR, Hartmann PE. Effect of warm breastshields on breast milk pumping. J Hum Lact. 2011;27:331–8. [Crossref]

  • [65]

    Kinlay JR, O’Connell DL, Kinlay S. Risk factors for mastitis in breastfeeding women: results of a prospective cohort study. Aust N Z J Publ Health. 2001;25:115–20.

  • [66]

    Kohlhuber M, Rebhan B, Schwegler U, Koletzko B, Fromme H. Breastfeeding rates and duration in Germany: a Bavarian cohort study. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:1127–32.

  • [67]

    Kristiansen AL, Lande B, Øverby NC, Frost Andersen L. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding and breastfeeding in Norway. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13:2087–96. [Crossref]

  • [68]

    Kvist LJ. Toward a clarification of the concept of mastitis as used in empirical studies of breast inflammation during lactation (Review). J Hum Lact. 2010;26:53–9. [Crossref]

  • [69]

    Kvist LJ, Rydhstroem H. Factors related to breast abscess after delivery: a population-based study. Br J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;112:1070–4. [Crossref]

  • [70]

    Kvist LJ, Hall-Lord ML, Rydhstroem H, Larsson BW. A randomised-controlled trial in Sweden of acupuncture and care interventions for the relief of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation. Midwifery. 2007;23:184–95. [Crossref]

  • [71]

    Kvist LJ, Larsson BW, Hall-Lord ML, Steen A, Schalén C. The role of bacteria in lactational mastitis and some considerations of the use of antibiotic treatment. Intern Breastfeed J. 2008;3:6–12. [Crossref]

  • [72]

    La Leche League International citing: Walters S. Will using a pacifier affect my breastfed baby? New Beginnings. 2007;24:279. http://www.lalecheleague.org/nb/nbnovdec07p279.html.

  • [73]

    Lange C, Schenk L, Bergmann RL. Verbreitung, Dauer und zeitlicher Trend des Stillens in Deutschland. Ergebnisse des Kinder- und Jugendsurveys (KIGGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt. 2007;50:624–33. [Crossref]

  • [74]

    Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding. a guide for the medical profession. 7th ed. Matyland Heights, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2011.

  • [75]

    Lawton R, Ashley L, Dawson S, Waiblinger D, Conner M. Employing an extended theory of planned behaviour to predict breastfeeding intention, initiation, and maintenance in White British and South-Asian mothers living in Bradford. Br J Health Psychol. 2012;17:854–71. [Crossref]

  • [76]

    Li R, Fein SB, Chen J, Grummer-Strawn LM. Why mothers stop breastfeeding: mothers’ self reported reasons for stopping during the first year. Pediatrics. 2008;122:S69–76. [Crossref]

  • [77]

    Li R, Fein SB, Grummer-Strawn LM. Do infants fed from bottles lack self-regulation of milk intake compared with directly breastfed infants? Pediatrics. 2010;125:e1386–93. [Crossref]

  • [78]

    Macdonald PD, Ross SRM, Grant L, Young D. Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003;88:F472–6. [Crossref]

  • [79]

    Mangesi L, Dowswell T. Treatments for breast engorgement during lactation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;9: CD6946.

  • [80]

    McClellan HL, Hepworth AR, Kent JC, Garbin CP, Williams TM, Hartmann PE, et al. Breastfeeding frequency, milk volume, and duration in mother-infant dyads with persistent nipple pain. Beastfeed Med. 2012;7:275–81. [Crossref]

  • [81]

    McKechnie AC, Eglash A. Nipple shields: a review of the literature. Breastfeed Med. 2010;3:9–14.

  • [82]

    McNeilly AS, Robinson ICAF, Houston MJ, Howie PW. Release of oxytocin and prolactin in response to suckling. Br Med J. 1983;286:257–9. [Crossref]

  • [83]

    Michaelsen KF, Larsen PS, Thomsen BL, Samuelson G. The Copenhagen cohort study on infant nutrition and growth: breast-milk intake, human milk macronutrient content, and influencing factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:600–11.

  • [84]

    Michalopoulos K. The effects of breast augmentation surgery on future ability to lactate. Breast J. 2007;13:62–7. [Crossref]

  • [85]

    Moon JL, Humenick SS. Breast engorgement: contributing variables and variables amenable to nursing intervention. J Obstst Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 1989;18:309–15. [Crossref]

  • [86]

    Moorhead AM, Amir LH, O’Brien PW, Wong S. A prospective study of fluconazole treatment for breast and nipple thrush. Breastfeed Rev. 2011;3:25–9.

  • [87]

    Morland-Schulz K, Hill PD. Prevention of and therapies for nipple pain: a systematic review. JOGNN. 2005;34:428–37. [Crossref]

  • [88]

    Mulder PJ. A concept analysis of effective breastfeeding. J Obstet Gynecol Neoat Nurs. 2006;35:332–9. [Crossref]

  • [89]

    Neifert MR. Prevention of breastfeeding tragedies. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001;48:273–97. [Crossref]

  • [90]

    Neifert MR, Seacat JM, Jobe WE. Lactation failure due to insufficient glandular development of the breast. Pediatrics. 1985;76:823–8.

  • [91]

    Neville MC. Anatomy and physiology of lactation. Pediatr Clin NA. 2001;48:13–52. [Crossref]

  • [92]

    Neville MC, Keller R, Seacat J, Lutes V, Neifert M, Casey C, et al. Studies in human lactation. Milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48:1375–86.

  • [93]

    Newton N. Nipple pain and nipple damage. Problems in the management of breastfeeding. J Pediatr. 1952;37:411–23. [Crossref]

  • [94]

    Newton M, Newton NR. The let-down reflex in human lactation. J Pediatr. 1948;33:698–704. [Crossref]

  • [95]

    Nommsen-Rivers LA, Dolan LM, Huang B. Timing of stage II lactogenesis is predicted by antenatal metabolic health in a cohort of primiparas. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:43–9. [Crossref]

  • [96]

    Panjaitan M, Amir LH, Costa AM, Rudland E, Tabrizi S. Polymerase chain reaction in detection of Candida albicans for confirmation of clinical diagnosis of nipple thrush. Letter to the Editor. Breastfeed Med. 2008;3:185–7. [Crossref]

  • [97]

    Pérez-Escamilla R, Chapman DJ. Validity and public health implications of maternal perception of the onset of lactation: an international analytical overview. J Nutr. 2001;131:3021S–4S.

  • [98]

    Pérez-Escamilla R, Pollitt E, Lönnerdal B, Dewey KG. Infant feeding policies in maternity wards and their effect on breast-feeding success: an analytical overview. Am J Publ Health. 1994;84:89–97. [Crossref]

  • [99]

    Prader A, Tanner JM, Harnack CA. Catch-up growth following illness or starvation. J Pediatr. 1963;62:646–59. [Crossref]

  • [100]

    Prentice A, Paul A, Prentice A, Black A, Cole T, Whitehead R. Cross-cultural differences in lactational performance. In: Hamosh M, Goldman AS, editors. Human lactation 2: Maternal and environmental factors. New York: Plenum Press; 1986. p. 13–44.

  • [101]

    Prior E, Santhakumaran S, Gale Ch, Philipps LH, Modi N, Hyde MJ. Breastfeeding after cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of world literature. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:1113–35. [Crossref]

  • [102]

    Rasmussen KM, Kjolhede CL. Prepregnant overweight and obesity diminish the prolactin response to suckling in the first week postpartum. Pediatrics. 2004;13:e465–71. [Crossref]

  • [103]

    Renfrew MJ, McCormick FM, Wade A, Quinn B, Dowswell T. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD1141.

  • [104]

    Riordan JM, Koehn M. Reliability and validity testing of three breastfeeding assessment tools. J Obstet Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 1997;26:181–7. [Crossref]

  • [105]

    Riva E, Banderali G, Agostoni C, Silano M, Radaelli G, Giovannini M. Factors associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding in Italy. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:411–5. [Crossref]

  • [106]

    Sachs M, Dykes F, Carter B. Weight monitoring of breastfed babies in the United Kingdom – interpreting, explaining and intervening. Matern Child Nutr. 2006;2:3–18. [Crossref]

  • [107]

    Scott JA, Robertson M, Fitzpatrick J, Knight CH, Mulholland S. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management: a prospective cohort study in Glasgow. Intern Breastfeed J. 2008;3:21–7. [Crossref]

  • [108]

    Sheffield JS. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in obstetrics. Am J Perinatol. 2013;30:125–30.

  • [109]

    Storr GB. Prevention of nipple tenderness and breast engorgement in the postpartal period. J Obstet Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 1988;17:203–9. [Crossref]

  • [110]

    Thibaudeau S, Sinno H, Williams B. The effects of breast reduction on successful breastfeeding: a systematic review. J Plast Reconstruct Aesthet Surg. 2010;63:1688–93.

  • [111]

    Ueda T, Yokoyama Y, Irahara M, Aono T. Influence of psychological stress on suckling-induced pulsatile oxytocin release. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84:259–62.

  • [112]

    United Nations Childrens’ Emergency Fund (UNICEF)/World Health Organisation (WHO). Evidence for the 10 steps to successful breastfeeding. WHO Geneva 1998. http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_24850.html. http//:www.tensteps.org.

  • [113]

    Velandia M, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Nissen E. Sex differences in newborn interaction with mother or father during skin-to-skin contact after caesarean section. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101:360–7. [Crossref]

  • [114]

    WHO. Mastitis. Causes and clinical management. Geneva: WHO; 2000.

  • [115]

    WHO. Infant and young child feeding: model chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals. Geneva: WHO; 2009. p. 68.

  • [116]

    WHO. Ten facts on breastfeeding. Statement July 2012. http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/breastfeeding/facts/en/.

  • [117]

    WHO/UNICEF/BABY-FRIENDLY HOSPITAL INITIATIVE (BHFI). Breastfeeding promotion and support in a baby-friendly hospital. A 20-hour course for maternity staff. Original BFHI course developed 1993. Geneva: WHO; 2009.

  • [118]

    Widström AM, Lilja G, Aaltomaa-Michalia P, Dahllöf A, Lintula M, Nissen E. Newborn behaviour to locate the breast when skin-to-skin: a possible method for enabling early self-regulation. Acta Paediatrica. 2011;100:79–85. [Crossref]

  • [119]

    Widström MA, Ransjö-Arvidson AB, Christensson K, Mattiesen AS, Winberg J, Uvnäs-Moberg K. Gastric suction in healthy newborn infants effects on circulation and developing feeding behaviour. Acta Paediatrica. 1987;76:566–72. [Crossref]

  • [120]

    Winberg J. Mother and newborn baby: mutual regulation of physiology and behavior – a selective review. Dev Psychobiol. 2005;47:217–29. [Crossref]

About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. Dr. Renate L. Bergmann, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin/Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Klinik fuer Geburtsmedizin Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany, Tel.: +49 30 450 564 101, Fax: +49 30 45 0564 908, E-mail: ; and Department of Obstetrics, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany

Received: 2013-05-03

Accepted: 2013-08-12

Published Online: 2013-09-21

Published in Print: 2014-01-01

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2013-0095. Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Scott C. Denne
Pediatric Clinics of North America, 2015, Volume 62, Number 2, Page 427
Ruth Zielinski, Leslie Stork, Megan Deibel, Catherine L. Kothari, and Kimberly Searing
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2014, Volume 04, Number 09, Page 497
Joana Raquel Silva, Rita Carvalho, Catarina Maia, Marta Osório, and Marta Barbosa
Breastfeeding Medicine, 2014, Volume 9, Number 8, Page 411

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in