Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, MD, FRCOG, Joachim W.

Ed. by Bancalari, Eduardo / Chappelle, Joseph / Chervenak, Frank A. / D'Addario , Vincenzo / Genc, Mehmet R. / Greenough, Anne / Grunebaum, Amos / Konje, Justin C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Romero, Roberto / Zalud, MD PhD, Ivica

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.361
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.578

CiteScore 2018: 1.29

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.522
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.602

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 45, Issue 5


Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma infection in pregnancy: to screen or not to screen

Gilbert G.G. Donders
  • Corresponding author
  • Femicare vzw, Clinical Research for Women, Tienen, Belgium
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Antwerpen, Belgium
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital H Hart, Tienen, Belgium
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Kateryna Ruban / Gert Bellen / Ljubomir Petricevic
Published Online: 2017-01-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2016-0111


Mycoplasmata have been linked to pregnancy complications and neonatal risk. While formerly a limited number of species could be discovered by cultures, molecular biology nowadays discovers both lower quantities and more diverse species, making us realize that mycoplasmata are ubiquitous in the vaginal milieu and do not always pose a danger for pregnant women. As the meaning of mycoplasmata in pregnancy is not clear to many clinicians, we summarized the current knowledge about the meaning of different kinds of mycoplasmata in pregnancy and discuss the potential benefits and disadvantages of treatment. Currently, there is no general rule to screen and treat for mycoplasmata in pregnancy. New techniques seem to indicate that Ureaplasma parvum (Up), which now can be distinguished from U. urealyticum (Uu), may pose an increased risk for preterm birth and bronchopulmonary disease in the preterm neonate. Mycoplasma hominis (Mh) is related to early miscarriages and midtrimester abortions, especially in the presence of abnormal vaginal flora. Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) is now recognized as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is involved in the causation of cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in non-pregnant, and preterm birth and miscarriages in pregnant women, irrespective of the presence of concurrent other STIs, like Chlamydia or gonorrhoea. Proper studies to test for efficacy and improved pregnancy outcome are scarce and inconclusive. Azythromycin is the standard treatment now, although, for Mg, this may not be sufficient. The role of clarithromycin in clinical practice still has to be established. There is a stringent need for new studies based on molecular diagnostic techniques and randomized treatment protocols with promising and safe antimicrobials.

Keywords: Abnormal vaginal flora; antenatal screening; bacterial vaginosis; Mycoplasma genitalium; Mycoplasma hominis; Ureaplasma parvum; Ureaplasma urealyticum


  • [1]

    Lee SE, Romero R, Kim EC, Yoon BH. A high Nugent score but not a positive culture for genital mycoplasmas is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;22:212–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2]

    Smith DG, Russell WC, Thirkell D. Adherence of Ureaplasma urealyticum to human epithelial cells. Microbiology. 1994;140(Pt 10):2893–8.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Christiansen G, Jensen LT, Boesen T, Emmersen J, Ladefoged SA, Schiotz LK, et al. Molecular biology of Mycoplasma. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1997;109:557–61.Google Scholar

  • [4]

    Harada K, Tanaka H, Komori S, Tsuji Y, Nagata K, Tsutsui H, et al. Vaginal infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum accounts for preterm delivery via induction of inflammatory responses. Microbiol Immunol. 2008;52:297–304.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5]

    Donders GG, Van CK, Bellen G, Reybrouck R, Van den Bosch T, Riphagen I, et al. Predictive value for preterm birth of abnormal vaginal flora, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis during the first trimester of pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;116:1315–24.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    Rezeberga D, Lazdane G, Kroica J, Sokolova L, Donders GG. Placental histological inflammation and reproductive tract infections in a low risk pregnant population in Latvia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87:360–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    Cunningham CK, Bonville CA, Hagen JH, Belkowitz JL, Kawatu RM, Higgins AM, et al. Immunoblot analysis of anti-Ureaplasma urealyticum antibody in pregnant women and newborn infants. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996;3:487–92.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    Ruzman N, Miskulin M, Rudan S, Bosnjak Z. The prevalence and the risk factors of the cervical colonization by the genital mycoplasmas among pregnant women from Eastern Croatia. Coll Antropol. 2013;37:135–40.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Faye-Kette H, La RG, Ali-Napo L, Messou N, Viho I, Welffens-Ekra C, et al. Genital mycoplasmas among pregnant women in Cote d’Ivoire, West Africa: prevalence and risk factors. Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11:599–602.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    Agbakoba NR, Adetosoye AI, Adewole IF. Presence of mycoplasma and ureaplasma species in the vagina of women of reproductive age. West Afr J Med. 2007;26:28–31.Google Scholar

  • [11]

    Baczynska A, Hvid M, Lamy P, Birkelund S, Christiansen G, Fedder J. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis among Danish patients requesting abortion. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2008;54:127–34.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Averbach SH, Hacker MR, Yiu T, Modest AM, Dimitrakoff J, Ricciotti HA. Mycoplasma genitalium and preterm delivery at an urban community health center. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;123:54–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    Bayraktar MR, Ozerol IH, Gucluer N, Celik O. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant women. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e90–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Choi SJ, Park SD, Jang IH, Uh Y, Lee A. The prevalence of vaginal microorganisms in pregnant women with preterm labor and preterm birth. Ann Lab Med. 2012;32:194–200.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Lawton BA, Rose SB, Bromhead C, Gaitanos LA, MacDonald EJ, Lund KA. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in women presenting for termination of pregnancy. Contraception. 2008;77:294–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Peuchant O, Le RC, Desveaux C, Paris A, Asselineau J, Maldonado C, et al. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium should it be integrated into routine pregnancy care in French young pregnant women? Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015;82:14–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17]

    Kataoka S, Yamada T, Chou K, Nishida R, Morikawa M, Minami M, et al. Association between preterm birth and vaginal colonization by mycoplasmas in early pregnancy. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:51–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    Labbe AC, Frost E, Deslandes S, Mendonca AP, Alves AC, Pepin J. Mycoplasma genitalium is not associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy in Guinea-Bissau. Sex Transm Infect. 2002;78:289–91.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    Oakeshott P, Hay P, Taylor-Robinson D, Hay S, Dohn B, Kerry S, et al. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in early pregnancy and relationship between its presence and pregnancy outcome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;111:1464–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Jobe KA, Downey RF, Hammar D, Van SL, Schmidt TA. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti: the Grand’Anse Women’s Health Study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91:881–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    Zheng BJ, Yin YP, Xiang Z, Han Y, Shi MQ, Jiang N, et al. An epidemiological study of Mycoplasma genitalium infections among males attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Guangxi, China. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2014;67:17–21.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22]

    Gesink DC, Mulvad G, Montgomery-Andersen R, Poppel U, Montgomery-Andersen S, Binzer A, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium presence, resistance and epidemiology in Greenland. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Shipitsyna E, Krasnoselskikh T, Zolotoverkhaya E, Savicheva A, Krotin P, Domeika M, et al. Sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes regarding safe sex, and prevalence of non-viral sexually transmitted infections among attendees of youth clinics in St. Petersburg, Russia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27:e75–84.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24]

    Manhart LE, Critchlow CW, Holmes KK, Dutro SM, Eschenbach DA, Stevens CE, et al. Mucopurulent cervicitis and Mycoplasma genitalium. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:650–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    Jacobsson B, Mattsby-Baltzer I, Andersch B, Bokstrom H, Holst RM, Nikolaitchouk N, et al. Microbial invasion and cytokine response in amniotic fluid in a Swedish population of women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:423–31.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [26]

    Bujold E, Morency AM, Rallu F, Ferland S, Tetu A, Duperron L, et al. Bacteriology of amniotic fluid in women with suspected cervical insufficiency. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2008;30:882–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    Oh KJ, Lee SE, Jung H, Kim G, Romero R, Yoon BH. Detection of ureaplasmas by the polymerase chain reaction in the amniotic fluid of patients with cervical insufficiency. J Perinat Med. 2010;38:261–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28]

    Witt A, Berger A, Gruber CJ, Petricevic L, Apfalter P, Worda C, et al. Increased intrauterine frequency of Ureaplasma urealyticum in women with preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of the membranes and subsequent cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:1663–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Kirchner L, Helmer H, Heinze G, Wald M, Brunbauer M, Weninger M, et al. Amnionitis with Ureaplasma urealyticum or other microbes leads to increased morbidity and prolonged hospitalization in very low birth weight infants. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;134:44–50.Google Scholar

  • [30]

    Kundsin RB, Leviton A, Allred EN, Poulin SA. Ureaplasma urealyticum infection of the placenta in pregnancies that ended prematurely. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87:122–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31]

    Jacobsson B, Mattsby-Baltzer I, Andersch B, Bokstrom H, Holst RM, Wennerholm UB, et al. Microbial invasion and cytokine response in amniotic fluid in a Swedish population of women in preterm labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:120–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [32]

    Jacobsson B, Mattsby-Baltzer I, Hagberg H. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in cervical and amniotic fluid: relationship to microbial invasion of the chorioamniotic membranes. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;112:719–24.Google Scholar

  • [33]

    Jacobsson B, Aaltonen R, Rantakokko-Jalava K, Morken NH, Alanen A. Quantification of Ureaplasma urealyticum DNA in the amniotic fluid from patients in PTL and pPROM and its relation to inflammatory cytokine levels. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88:63–70.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34]

    Marconi C, de Andrade Ramos BR, Peracoli JC, Donders GG, da Silva MG. Amniotic fluid interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6, but not interleukin-8 correlate with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in preterm labor. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011;65:549–56.Google Scholar

  • [35]

    Oh KJ, Lee KA, Sohn YK, Park CW, Hong JS, Romero R, et al. Intraamniotic infection with genital mycoplasmas exhibits a more intense inflammatory response than intraamniotic infection with other microorganisms in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203:211–8.Google Scholar

  • [36]

    Hadar A, Ytzhaki O, Shani-Shrem N, Horowitz S, Mazor M, Horowitz S. Amniotic fluid intercellular adhesion molecule-1 is a marker for Ureaplasma infection in women with preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195:1601–6.Google Scholar

  • [37]

    Doh K, Barton PT, Korneeva I, Perni SC, Bongiovanni AM, Tuttle SL, et al. Differential vaginal expression of interleukin-1 system cytokines in the presence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2004;12:79–85.Google Scholar

  • [38]

    Gauthier DW, Meyer WJ, Bieniarz A. Expectant management of premature rupture of membranes with amniotic fluid cultures positive for Ureaplasma urealyticum alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;170:587–90.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39]

    Yoon BH, Romero R, Kim M, Kim EC, Kim T, Park JS, et al. Clinical implications of detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum in the amniotic cavity with the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183:1130–7.Google Scholar

  • [40]

    Jones HE, Harris KA, Azizia M, Bank L, Carpenter B, Hartley JC, et al. Differing prevalence and diversity of bacterial species in fetal membranes from very preterm and term labor. PLoS One. 2009;4:e8205.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [41]

    Payne MS, Feng Z, Li S, Doherty DA, Xu B, Li J, et al. Second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine concentrations, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation status and sexual activity as predictors of preterm birth in Chinese and Australian women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:340.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [42]

    Horowitz S, Mazor M, Horowitz J, Porath A, Glezerman M. Antibodies to Ureaplasma urealyticum in women with intraamniotic infection and adverse pregnancy outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1995;74:132–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [43]

    Horowitz S, Horowitz J, Mazor M, Porath A, Glezerman M. Ureaplasma urealyticum cervical colonization as a marker for pregnancy complications. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1995;48:15–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [44]

    Kacerovsky M, Pavlovsky M, Tosner J. Preterm premature rupture of the membranes and genital mycoplasmas. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2009;52:117–20.Google Scholar

  • [45]

    Kacerovsky M, Drahosova M, Hornychova H, Pliskova L, Bolehovska R, Forstl M, et al. Value of amniotic fluid interleukin-8 for the prediction of histological chorioamnionitis in preterm premature rupture of membranes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009;30:733–8.Google Scholar

  • [46]

    Kacerovsky M, Pliskova L, Bolehovska R, Musilova I, Hornychova H, Tambor V, et al. The microbial load with genital mycoplasmas correlates with the degree of histologic chorioamnionitis in preterm PROM. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:213–7.Google Scholar

  • [47]

    Kacerovsky M, Musilova I, Khatibi A, Skogstrand K, Hougaard DM, Tambor V, et al. Intraamniotic inflammatory response to bacteria: analysis of multiple amniotic fluid proteins in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:2014–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [48]

    Kacerovsky M, Pliskova L, Bolehovska R, Skogstrand K, Hougaard DM, Tsiartas P, et al. The impact of the microbial load of genital mycoplasmas and gestational age on the intensity of intraamniotic inflammation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;206:342–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [49]

    Kacerovsky M, Pliskova L, Menon R, Kutova R, Musilova I, Maly J, et al. Microbial load of umbilical cord blood Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27:1627–32.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [50]

    Massaro G, Scaravilli G, Simeone S, Capuano S, Pastore E, Forte A, et al. Interleukin-6 and Mycoplasma hominis as markers of preterm birth and related brain damage: our experience. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;22:1063–7.Google Scholar

  • [51]

    Gonzalez BE, Gene A, Ferrer I, Borras M, Lailla JM. Value of endocervical ureaplasma species colonization as a marker of preterm delivery. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006;61:119–23.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [52]

    Mitsunari M, Yoshida S, Deura I, Horie S, Tsukihara S, Harada T, et al. Cervical Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization might be associated with increased incidence of preterm delivery in pregnant women without prophlogistic microorganisms on routine examination. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2005;31:16–21.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [53]

    Kafetzis DA, Skevaki CL, Skouteri V, Gavrili S, Peppa K, Kostalos C, et al. Maternal genital colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum promotes preterm delivery: association of the respiratory colonization of premature infants with chronic lung disease and increased mortality. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1113–22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [54]

    Carroll SG, Papaioannou S, Ntumazah IL, Philpott-Howard J, Nicolaides KH. Lower genital tract swabs in the prediction of intrauterine infection in preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1996;103:54–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [55]

    Abele-Horn M, Peters J, Genzel-Boroviczeny O, Wolff C, Zimmermann A, Gottschling W. Vaginal Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization: influence on pregnancy outcome and neonatal morbidity. Infection. 1997;25:286–91.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [56]

    Breugelmans M, Vancutsem E, Naessens A, Laubach M, Foulon W. Association of abnormal vaginal flora and Ureaplasma species as risk factors for preterm birth: a cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:256–60.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [57]

    Carey JC, Blackwelder WC, Nugent RP, Matteson MA, Rao AV, Eschenbach DA, et al. Antepartum cultures for Ureaplasma urealyticum are not useful in predicting pregnancy outcome. The Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;164:728–33.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [58]

    Martinez MA, Ovalle A, Santa-Cruz A, Barrera B, Vidal R, Aguirre R. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma parvum (Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 1) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 2) from patients with adverse pregnancy outcomes and normal pregnant women. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33:604–10.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [59]

    Kong F, Ma Z, James G, Gordon S, Gilbert GL. Species identification and subtyping of Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum using PCR-based assays. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1175–9.Google Scholar

  • [60]

    Kemp MW, Saito M, Kallapur SG, Jobe AH, Keelan JA, Li S, et al. Inflammation of the fetal ovine skin following in utero exposure to Ureaplasma parvum. Reprod Sci. 2011;18:1128–37.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [61]

    Moss TJ, Nitsos I, Ikegami M, Jobe AH, Newnham JP. Experimental intrauterine Ureaplasma infection in sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:1179–86.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [62]

    Novy MJ, Duffy L, Axthelm MK, Sadowsky DW, Witkin SS, Gravett MG, et al. Ureaplasma parvum or Mycoplasma hominis as sole pathogens cause chorioamnionitis, preterm delivery, and fetal pneumonia in rhesus macaques. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:56–70.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [63]

    Allen-Daniels MJ, Serrano MG, Pflugner LP, Fettweis JM, Prestosa MA, Koparde VN, et al. Identification of a gene in Mycoplasma hominis associated with preterm birth and microbial burden in intraamniotic infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212:779.Google Scholar

  • [64]

    Abrahams VM, Potter JA, Bhat G, Peltier MR, Saade G, Menon R. Bacterial modulation of human fetal membrane Toll-like receptor expression. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013;69:33–40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [65]

    Nguyen DP, Gerber S, Hohlfeld P, Sandrine G, Witkin SS. Mycoplasma hominis in mid-trimester amniotic fluid: relation to pregnancy outcome. J Perinat Med. 2004;32:323–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [66]

    Hillier SL, Nugent RP, Eschenbach DA, Krohn MA, Gibbs RS, Martin DH, et al. Association between bacterial vaginosis and preterm delivery of a low-birth-weight infant. The Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1737–42.Google Scholar

  • [67]

    Agger WA, Siddiqui D, Lovrich SD, Callister SM, Borgert AJ, Merkitch KW, et al. Epidemiologic factors and urogenital infections associated with preterm birth in a midwestern U.S. population. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124:969–77.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [68]

    Donders GG, Van BB, Caudron J, Londers L, Vereecken A, Spitz B. Relationship of bacterial vaginosis and mycoplasmas to the risk of spontaneous abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183:431–7.Google Scholar

  • [69]

    Leli C, Meucci M, Vento S, D’Alo F, Farinelli S, Perito S, et al. Microbial and vaginal determinants influencing Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum genital colonization in a population of female patients. Infez Med. 2013;21:201–6.Google Scholar

  • [70]

    Kwak DW, Hwang HS, Kwon JY, Park YW, Kim YH. Co-infection with vaginal Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis increases adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27:333–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [71]

    Capoccia R, Greub G, Baud D. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26:231–40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [72]

    Odendaal HJ, Popov I, Schoeman J, Grove D. Preterm labour–is Mycoplasma hominis involved? S Afr Med J. 2002;92:235–7.Google Scholar

  • [73]

    Menard JP, Mazouni C, Salem-Cherif I, Fenollar F, Raoult D, Boubli L, et al. High vaginal concentrations of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis in women undergoing preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:134–40.Google Scholar

  • [74]

    Edwards RK, Ferguson RJ, Reyes L, Brown M, Theriaque DW, Duff P. Assessing the relationship between preterm delivery and various microorganisms recovered from the lower genital tract. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;19:357–63.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [75]

    Lu GC, Schwebke JR, Duffy LB, Cassell GH, Hauth JC, Andrews WW, et al. Midtrimester vaginal Mycoplasma genitalium in women with subsequent spontaneous preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185:163–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [76]

    Lis R, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Manhart LE. Mycoplasma genitalium infection and female reproductive tract disease: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:418–26.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [77]

    Short VL, Jensen JS, Nelson DB, Murray PJ, Ness RB, Haggerty CL. Mycoplasma genitalium among young, urban pregnant women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2010;2010:984760.Google Scholar

  • [78]

    Hitti J, Garcia P, Totten P, Paul K, Astete S, Holmes KK. Correlates of cervical Mycoplasma genitalium and risk of preterm birth among Peruvian women. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:81–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [79]

    Cultrera R, Seraceni S, Germani R, Contini C. Molecular evidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum colonization in preterm infants during respiratory distress syndrome. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:166.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [80]

    Viscardi RM, Hashmi N, Gross GW, Sun CC, Rodriguez A, Fairchild KD. Incidence of invasive ureaplasma in VLBW infants: relationship to severe intraventricular hemorrhage. J Perinatol. 2008;28:759–65.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [81]

    Goldenberg RL, Andrews WW, Goepfert AR, Faye-Petersen O, Cliver SP, Carlo WA, et al. The Alabama Preterm Birth Study: umbilical cord blood Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis cultures in very preterm newborn infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:43–5.Google Scholar

  • [82]

    Hahn HS, Lee KH, Koo YJ, Kim SG, Rhee JE, Kim MY, et al. Distribution and perinatal transmission of bacterial vaginal infections in pregnant women without vaginal symptoms. Scand J Infect Dis. 2014;46:348–53.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [83]

    Rosenstein IJ, Morgan DJ, Lamont RF, Sheehan M, Dore CJ, Hay PE, et al. Effect of intravaginal clindamycin cream on pregnancy outcome and on abnormal vaginal microbial flora of pregnant women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2000;8:158–65.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [84]

    De Francesco MA, Caracciolo S, Bonfanti C, Manca N. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum isolated in Brescia, Italy, over 7 years. J Infect Chemother. 2013;19:621–7.Google Scholar

  • [85]

    Ramsey PS, Vaules MB, Vasdev GM, Andrews WW, Ramin KD. Maternal and transplacental pharmacokinetics of azithromycin. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:714–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [86]

    Sutton AL, Acosta EP, Larson KB, Kerstner-Wood CD, Tita AT, Biggio JR. Perinatal pharmacokinetics of azithromycin for cesarean prophylaxis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212:812–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [87]

    Merchan LM, Hassan HE, Terrin ML, Waites KB, Kaufman DA, Ambalavanan N, et al. Pharmacokinetics, microbial response, and pulmonary outcomes of multidose intravenous azithromycin in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:570–8.Google Scholar

  • [88]

    Furfaro LL, Spiller OB, Keelan JA, Payne MS. In vitro activity of solithromycin and its metabolites, CEM-214 and N-acetyl-CEM-101, against 100 clinical Ureaplasma spp. isolates compared with azithromycin. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2015;46:319–24.Google Scholar

  • [89]

    Manhart LE, Broad JM, Golden MR. Mycoplasma genitalium: should we treat and how? Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53 Suppl 3:S129–42.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [90]

    Mazor M, Horowitz S, Meril T, Bar-Am I. Eradication of Ureaplasma urealyticum from amniotic fluid. Isr J Med Sci. 1992;28:296–8.Google Scholar

  • [91]

    Romero R, Hagay Z, Nores J, Sepulveda W, Mazor M. Eradication of Ureaplasma urealyticum from the amniotic fluid with transplacental antibiotic treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;166:618–20.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [92]

    Smorgick N, Frenkel E, Zaidenstein R, Lazarovitch T, Sherman DJ. Antibiotic treatment of intra-amniotic infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum. A case report and literature review. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2007;22:90–3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [93]

    Berg TG, Philpot KL, Welsh MS, Sanger WG, Smith CV. Ureaplasma/Mycoplasma-infected amniotic fluid: pregnancy outcome in treated and nontreated patients. J Perinatol. 1999;19:275–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [94]

    Grigsby PL, Novy MJ, Sadowsky DW, Morgan TK, Long M, Acosta E, et al. Maternal azithromycin therapy for Ureaplasma intraamniotic infection delays preterm delivery and reduces fetal lung injury in a primate model. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:475.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [95]

    Ogasawara KK, Goodwin TM. Efficacy of azithromycin in reducing lower genital Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in women at risk for preterm delivery. J Matern Fetal Med. 1999;8:12–6.Google Scholar

  • [96]

    Witt A, Sommer EM, Cichna M, Postlbauer K, Widhalm A, Gregor H, et al. Placental passage of clarithromycin surpasses other macrolide antibiotics. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:816–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [97]

    Azizmohammadi S, Azizmohammadi S. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis Isolated From Pregnant Women. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17:e17211.Google Scholar

  • [98]

    Gomez R, Romero R, Nien JK, Medina L, Carstens M, Kim YM, et al. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes does not eradicate intra-amniotic infection. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;20:167–73.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [99]

    McCormack WM, Rosner B, Lee YH, Munoz A, Charles D, Kass EH. Effect on birth weight of erythromycin treatment of pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;69:202–7.Google Scholar

  • [100]

    Eschenbach DA, Nugent RP, Rao AV, Cotch MF, Gibbs RS, Lipscomb KA, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of erythromycin for the treatment of Ureaplasma urealyticum to prevent premature delivery. The Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;164:734–42.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [101]

    Ozdemir R, Erdeve O, Dizdar EA, Oguz SS, Uras N, Saygan S, et al. Clarithromycin in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in Ureaplasma urealyticum-positive preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e1496–501.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [102]

    Ozdemir R, Sari FN, Tunay ZO, Erdeve O, Canpolat FE, Oguz SS, et al. The association between respiratory tract Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization and severe retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants </=1250 g. Eye (Lond). 2012;26:992–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [103]

    Ogasawara KK, Goodwin TM. The efficacy of prophylactic erythromycin in preventing vertical transmission of Ureaplasma urealyticum. Am J Perinatol. 1997;14:233–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Prof Dr. Gilbert G.G. Donders, Femicare vzw, Clinical Research for Women, Gasthuismolenstraat 31, B- 3300 Tienen, Belgium, Tel.: +32 16 808102, Fax: +32 16 808109

Received: 2016-03-27

Accepted: 2016-08-01

Published Online: 2017-01-18

Published in Print: 2017-07-26

The authors stated that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, Volume 45, Issue 5, Pages 505–515, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2016-0111.

Export Citation

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco and Itaru Yanagihara
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 2019, Volume 45, Number 9, Page 1796
Vladimir P. Kovalyk, Elena V. Vladimirova, Tayana V. Rubasheva, and Natalia S. Sirmays
Journal of Clinical Practice, 2019, Volume 10, Number 1, Page 81
Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Thomas Waldhoer, Stefan M. Schulz, Birgit Pimpel, Katharina Goeral, David C. Kasper, Armin Witt, and Angelika Berger
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2019, Volume 220, Number 6, Page 594.e1
Nunzia Zanotta, Giuseppina Campisciano, Sara Morassut, Eugenia Castro‐Silva, Viviana Luksa, Gabriella Zito, Stefania Luppi, Monica Martinelli, Claudia Colli, Francesco Seta, Giuseppe Ricci, Barbara Suligoi, and Manola Comar
Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2019
Kyung Joon Oh, Joon-Seok Hong, Roberto Romero, and Bo Hyun Yoon
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2019, Volume 32, Number 4, Page 527
Simon C. Masha, Piet Cools, Patrick Descheemaeker, Marijke Reynders, Eduard J. Sanders, and Mario Vaneechoutte
BMC Infectious Diseases, 2018, Volume 18, Number 1
Tatiana Rumyantseva, Guzel Khayrullina, Alexander Guschin, and Gilbert Donders
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2018
Ольга Островская, Olga Ostrovskaya, Наталья Ивахнишина, Natalya Ivakhnishina, Ольга Кожарская, Ol'ga Kozharskaya, Денис Мусатов, Denis Musatov, Виктория Обухова, Viktoriya Obuhova, Марина Власова, Marina Vlasova, Елена Наговицына, E Nagovitsyna, Стефания Супрун, Stefaniya Suprun, Галина Евсеева, Galina Evseeva, Ольга Лебедько, and Olga Lebedko
Bulletin physiology and pathology of respiration , 2018, Page 43
B. Otgonjargal, G. Batbaatar, K. Pfeffer, T Bruhn, C Battogtokh, and B Henrich
International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2018
Ursula Fürnkranz, Julia Walochnik, and Birgit Henrich
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 2018, Volume 14, Page 169
P. Horner, G. Donders, M. Cusini, M. Gomberg, J.S. Jensen, and M. Unemo
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2018
Ashley L. Hodges and Aimee Chism Holland
Nursing Clinics of North America, 2018, Volume 53, Number 2, Page 189
Rose M. Viscardi
NeoReviews, 2018, Volume 19, Number 2, Page e69
Kirsten Glaser, Christine Silwedel, Markus Fehrholz, Ana M. Waaga-Gasser, Birgit Henrich, Heike Claus, and Christian P. Speer
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2017, Volume 7

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in