Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, MD, FRCOG, Joachim W.

Ed. by Bancalari, Eduardo / Chappelle, Joseph / Chervenak, Frank A. / D'Addario , Vincenzo / Genc, Mehmet R. / Greenough, Anne / Grunebaum, Amos / Konje, Justin C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Romero, Roberto / Zalud, MD PhD, Ivica


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.361
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.578

CiteScore 2018: 1.29

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.522
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.602

Online
ISSN
1619-3997
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 46, Issue 1

Issues

Violence before pregnancy and the risk of violence during pregnancy

Vislava Globevnik Velikonja
  • Department of Perinatology, Clinical Psychology Service, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Miha Lučovnik
  • Department of Perinatology, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Tanja Premru Sršen
  • Department of Perinatology, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Vesna Leskošek / Megie Krajnc
  • Department of Perinatology, Clinical Psychology Service, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Lucija Pavše
  • Department of Perinatology, Clinical Psychology Service, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ivan Verdenik
  • Department of Perinatology, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Natasa Tul
  • Department of Perinatology, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Isaac Blickstein
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot – 76100, Israel affiliated with the Hadassah-Hebrew University school of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel, Tel.: + 972-545-201789, Fax: + 972-89411944
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-02-10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2016-0378

Abstract

Objective:

To investigate the relationships among different forms of violence before and during pregnancy.

Material and methods:

An anonymous questionnaire (adapted NorAQ) was given to 1269 women after childbirth.

Results:

The response rate was 80% (n=1018). Different forms of violence were experienced by 46.9% of the women; 9.2% reported violence in pregnancy. Suffering from the consequences of violence was reported by 43.8% of the women; sexual (76.6%) and psychological (54.1%) ranked the highest. Past experience of any form of violence increased the risk of violence in pregnancy, violences experienced in adulthood even more than that in childhood [odds ratio (OR) 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7–6.5 vs. OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.9]. The onset of violence during pregnancy is rare. Violence was most frequently exerted by the intimate partner.

Conclusion:

Healthcare systems have access to most women of reproductive age, thus they have the unique opportunity to identify and adequately manage violence against women and its consequences.

Keywords: Health care abuse; intimate partner violence; physical abuse; pregnancy violence risk; psychological abuse; sexual abuse; violence

References

  • [1]

    Amaro H, Fried LE, Cabral H, Zuckerman B. Violence during pregnancy and substance use. Am J Public Health. 1990;80:575–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [2]

    Mezey GC, Bewley S. Domestic violence and pregnancy. Risk is greatest after delivery. Br Med J.1997;314:1295.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3]

    Widding Hedin L, Janson PO. Domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of physical injuries, substance use, abortions and miscarriages. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000;79:625–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Bacchus L, Mezey G, Bewley S. Domestic violence: prevalence in pregnant women and associations with physical and psychological health. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;113:6–11.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5]

    Intimate partner violence. Committee opinion No 518. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119–412.Google Scholar

  • [6]

    Donovan BM, Spracklen CN, Schweizer ML, Ryckman KK, Saftlas AF. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and the risk for adverse infant outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016;123:1289–99.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    Brüggemann AJ, Wijma B, Swahnberg K. Abuse in health care: a concept analysis. Scand J Caring Sci. 2012;26:123–32.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Leskošek V. The health condition of female victims of violence. Zdravstveno varstvo 2013;52:148–56.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    HOPE – Giving hope to victims of abuse through vocational guidance and counseling. National Report Slovenia. www.hopeguidance.eu/diss_files/National%20report%20SI.pdf.

  • [10]

    Swahnberg IM, Wijma B. The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ): validation of new measures of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and abuse in the health care system among women. Eur J Public Health. 2003;13:361–6.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Brownridge DA, Taillieu TL, Tyler KA, Tiwari A, Ko Ling Chan, Santos SC. Pregnancy and intimate partner violence: risk factors, severity and health effects. Violence Against Women. 2011;17:858–81.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    McFarlane J, Parker B, Soeken K, Bullock L. Assessing for abuse during pregnancy. Severity and frequency of injuries and associated entry into prenatal care. J Am Med Assoc. 1992;267:3176–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    Finnbogadóttir H, Dykes AK. Increasing prevalence and incidence of domestic violence during the pregnancy and one and a half year postpartum, as well as risk factors: a longitudinal cohort study in Southern Sweden. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16:327.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Yuan NP, Koss MP, Stone M. The psychological consequences of sexual trauma. Harrisburg, PA: VAWnet, A project of the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence/Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence; 2006. 1–10. Retrieved 31.3.2015, from htpp://www.vawnet.org

  • [15]

    Swahnberg K, Schei B, Hilden M, Halmesmäki E, Sidenius K, Steingrimsdottir T, Wijma B. Patients’ experiences of abuse in health care: a Nordic study on prevalence and associated factors in gynecological patients. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86:349–56.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Brüggemann AJ, Swahnberg K, Wijma B. A first online intervention to increase patients’ perceived ability to act in situations of abuse in health care: reports of a Swedish pre-post study. BMC Med Ethics. 2015;16:35.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-11-25

Accepted: 2017-01-12

Published Online: 2017-02-10

Published in Print: 2018-01-26


Author’s statement

Conflict of interest: Authors state no conflict of interest.

Material and methods: Informed consent: Informed consent has been obtained from all individuals included in this study.

Ethical approval: The research related to human subject use has complied with all the relevant national regulations, and institutional policies, and is in accordance with the tenets of the Helsinki Declaration, and has been approved by the authors’ institutional review board or equivalent committee.


Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 29–33, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2016-0378.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in