Gleason CA, Devaskar S. Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc; 2012. ISBN: 978-1-4377-0134-0.Google Scholar
Noerr B. Current controversies in the understanding of necrotizing enterocolitis. Part 1. Adv Neonatal Care. 2003; 2–3:107–20.Google Scholar
Thompson A, Bizzarro M, Yu S, Diefenbach K, Simpson BJ, Moss RL. Risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis totalis: a case–control study. J Perinatol. 2011;31:730–8.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Bell MJ, Ternberg JL, Feigin RD, Keating JP, Marshall R, Barton L, et al. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis – therapeutic decisions based upon clinical staging. Ann Surg. 1978;187:1–7.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Blau J, Calo JM, Dozor D, Sutton M, Alpan G, La Gamma EF. Transfusion-related acute gut injury: necrotizing enterocolitis in very low BW neonates after packed red blood cell transfusion. J Pediatr. 2011;158:403–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mally P, Golombek SG, Mishra R, Nigam S, Mohandas K, Depalhma H, et al. Association of necrotizing enterocolitis with elective packed red blood cell transfusions in stable, growing, premature neonates. Am J Perinatol. 2006;23: 451–8.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Christensen RD, Lambert DK, Henry E, Wiedmeier SE, Snow GL, Baer VL, et al. Is “transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis” an authentic pathogenic entity? Transfusion. 2010;50:1106–12.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Sullivan S, Schanler RJ, Kim JH, Patel AL, Trawoger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, et al. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products. J Pediatr. 2010;156:562–7.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Paul DA, Mackley A, Novitsky A, Zhao Y, Brooks A, Locke RG. Increased odds of necrotizing enterocolitis after transfusion of red blood cells in premature infants. Pediatrics. 2011;127:635–41.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
El-Dib M, Narang S, Lee E, Massaro NA, Aly H. Red blood cell transfusion, feeding and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. J Perinatol. 2011;31:183–7.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Singh R, Visintainer FP, Frantz DI, Shah LB, Meyer MK, Favila AS, et al. Association of necrotizing enterocolitis with anemia and packed red blood cell transfusions in preterm infants. J Perinatol. 2011;31:176–82.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Sharma R, Kraemer FD, Torrazza MR, Mai V, Neu J, Shuster JJ, et al. Packed red blood cell transfusion is not associated with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. J Perinatol. 2014;34:858–62.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
AlFaleh K, Al-Jebreen A, Baqays A, Al-Hallali A, Bedaiwi K, Al-Balahi N, et al. Association of packed red blood cell transfusion and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. J Neonatal Perinatal. 2014;7:193–8.Google Scholar
Wallenstein MB, Arain YH, Birnie KL, Andrews J, Palma JP, Benitz WE, et al. Red blood cell transfusion is not associated with necrotizing enterocolitis: a review of consecutive transfusions in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. J Pediatr. 2014;165:678–82.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Patel RM, Easley KA, Roback JD, Hinkes MT, Knezevic A, Josephson C, et al. Red blood cell (RBC) storage age, irradiation storage days, and timing of RBC transfusion are potential risk factors for the development of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants: preliminary results from a prospective birth cohort study. Transfusion. 2012;52(Supplement s3):20.Google Scholar
Kirpalani H, Zupancic JAF. Do Transfusions cause necrotizing enterocolitis? The complementary role of randomized trials and observational studies. Semin Perinatol. 2012;36:269–76.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Thomas J, Brunton J, Graziosi S. EPPI-Reviewer 4: software for research synthesis. EPPI-Centre Software. London: Social Science Research Unit, UCL Institute of Education; 2010.Google Scholar
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group AD, Cook DJ, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. J Clin Epidemiol. Elsevier; 2009;62:1006–12.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wells G, Shea B, O’Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. 2014. Available from: http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp.
Wan-Huen P, Bateman D, Shapiro MD, Parravicini E. Packed red blood cell transfusion is an independent risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. J Perinatol. 2013;33:786–90.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
StataCorp. 2015. Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Sation, TX.Google Scholar
Elabiad MT, Harsono M, Talati AJ, Dhanireddy R. Effect of birth weight on the association between necrotising enterocolitis and red blood cell transfusions in ≤1500g infants. BMJ Open. 2013;3:e003823.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Demirel G, Celik IH, Aksoy HT, Erdeve O, Oguz SS, Uras N, et al. Transfusion-associated necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight premature infants. Transfus Med. 2012;22:332–7.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Josephson CD, Wesolowski A, Bao G, Sola-Visner MC, Dudell G, Castillejo MI, et al. Do red cell transfusions increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants? J Pediatr. 2010;157:972–8.e3.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Holder GL, Doherty DA, Patole SK. Elective red cell transfusions for anemia of prematurity and development of necrotizing enterocolitis in previously well preterm neonates: incidence and difficulties in proving a cause-effect relation. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2009;2:181–6.Google Scholar
Sterne JAC, Egger M, Moher D (editors). Chapter 10: Addressing reporting biases. In: Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from: www.handbook.cochrane.org.
Kirpalani H, Whyte RK, Andersen C, Asztalos EV, Heddle N, Blajchman MA, et al. The premature infants in need of transfusion (pint) study: a randomized, controlled trial of a restrictive (LOW) versus liberal (HIGH) transfusion threshold for extremely low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2006;149:301–7.e3.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
DeRienzo C, Smith PB, Tanaka D, Bandarenko N, Campbell ML, Herman A, et al. Feeding practices and other risk factors for developing transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis. Early Hum Dev. 2014;90:237–40.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Patel RM, Knezevic A, Shenvi N, Hinkes M, Keene S, Roback JD, et al. Association of red blood cell transfusion, anemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low-birth-weight infants. J Am Med Assoc. 2016;315:889–97.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Doty M, Wade C, Farr J, Gomezcoello VC, Martin G, Nasr T. Feeding during blood transfusions and the association with necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Perinatol. 2016;33:882–6.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Krimmel GA, Baker R, Yanowitz TD. Blood transfusion alters the superior mesenteric artery blood flow velocity response to feeding in premature infants. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26: 99–105.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Christensen RD, Wiedmeier SE, Baer VL, Henry E, Gerday E, Lambert DK, et al. Antecedents of Bell stage III necrotizing enterocolitis. J Perinatol. 2010;30:54–7.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2017-10-25
Published in Print: 2018-08-28
Author’s statementFinancial disclosure: The authors have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.
Funding source: This project did not receive funding support.
Conflict of interest: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Material and methods: Informed consent: Informed consent has been obtained from all individuals included in this study.
Ethical approval: The research related to human subject use has complied with all the relevant national regulations, and institutional policies, and is in accordance with the tenets of the Helsinki Declaration, and has been approved by the authors’ institutional review board or equivalent committee.
Stientje Esther Rai: Dr. Rai conceptualized and designed the study, designed and completed the literature search, extracted the data, assisted in data analysis, interpreted results, drafted the initial manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.Amneet Kaur Sidhu: Dr. Sidhu participated in the concept and design of the study, completed the literature search, extracted the data, participated in data analysis and interpretation of results, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.Rohin Jayaram Krishnan: Mr. Krishnan participated in the concept and design of the study, extracted the data, performed all statistical analyses, interpreted results, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.