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Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, MD, FRCOG, Joachim W.

Ed. by Bancalari, Eduardo / Chappelle, Joseph / Chervenak, Frank A. / D'Addario , Vincenzo / Genc, Mehmet R. / Greenough, Anne / Grunebaum, Amos / Konje, Justin C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Romero, Roberto / Zalud, MD PhD, Ivica

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Volume 47, Issue 7


Simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A fractions in maternal and fetal compartments in early second trimester of pregnancy

Monika Zbucka-Krętowska
  • Department of Reproduction and Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Bialystok, Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie 24a, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
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/ Urszula Łazarek
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-522 Bialystok, Poland
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/ Wojciech Miltyk
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-522 Bialystok, Poland
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/ Iwona SidorkiewiczORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0254-3095 / Piotr Pierzyński
  • Department of Reproduction and Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Bialystok, Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie 24a, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
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/ Robert Milewski
  • Department of Statistics and Medical Informatics, Medical University of Bialystok, Szpitalna 37, 15-295 Bialystok, Poland
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/ Sławomir Wołczyński
  • Department of Reproduction and Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Bialystok, Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie 24a, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
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/ Jan Czerniecki
  • Department of Biology and Pathology of Human Reproduction, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Science, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
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Published Online: 2019-07-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0040



Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic, endocrine-disrupting compound widely used in the industry. It is also a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Its presence was confirmed in human fetuses, which results from maternal exposure during pregnancy. The mechanisms behind maternal-fetal transfer, and relationships between pregnant women and fetal exposures remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of maternal exposure to BPA on the exposure of the fetus.


Maternal plasma and amniotic fluid samples were collected from 52 pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. BPA was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The permeability factor – a ratio of fetal-to-maternal BPA concentration – was used as a measure delineating the transplacental transfer of BPA.


The median concentration of maternal plasma BPA was 8 times higher than the total BPA concentration in the amniotic fluid (8.69 ng/mL, range: 4.3 ng/mL–55.3 ng/mL vs. median 1.03 ng/mL, range: 0.3 ng/mL–10.1 ng/mL). There was no direct relationship between the levels of BPA in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid levels. The permeability factor, in turn, negatively correlated with fetal development (birth weight) (R = −0.54, P < 0.001).


Our results suggest that the risk of fetal BPA exposure depends on placental BPA permeability rather than the levels of maternal BPA plasma concentration and support general recommendations to become aware and avoid BPA-containing products.

Keywords: amniotic fluid; Bisphenol A; maternal plasma; prenatal exposure; second trimester


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About the article

Corresponding author: Iwona Sidorkiewicz, PhD, Clinical Research Centre, Medical University of Bialystok, Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie 24a, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland

Received: 2019-02-06

Accepted: 2019-07-07

Published Online: 2019-07-26

Published in Print: 2019-09-25

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, Volume 47, Issue 7, Pages 765–770, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0040.

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