Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Veterinary Research

formerly Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2016: 0.462

CiteScore 2016: 0.46

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.230
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.383

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2450-8608
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Simultaneous determination of ten illegal azo dyes in feed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Marta Piątkowska
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Piotr Jedziniak
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Małgorzata Olejnik
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Konrad Pietruk
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jan Żmudzki
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Andrzej Posyniak
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-09-19 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jvetres-2017-0040

Abstract

Introduction: The paper presents the method of simultaneous determination of 10 illegal azo dyes in feed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique. Material and Methods: The dyes were extracted with hexane, evaporated to dryness, and analysed. Separation was achieved in 7 min in a gradient elution using acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% formic acid (B) as a mobile phase. Results: The validation results showed the repeatability of the method, which was evaluated at three levels (50, 500, and 5,000 μg/kg). All the matrix calibration curves for the working ranges were linear (R2 0.9904 to 1.0), the repeatability was between 2.1% and 24%, and recoveries ranged from 77.9% to 120%. The LOD and LOQ were at 1-2 and 5-10 μg/kg for different dyes, respectively. Furthermore, the method was applied in the homogeneity tests of the in-house prepared feed containing Sudan I at the levels of 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg. Conclusions: A sensitive, selective, and fast multiresidue method was successfully developed and validated. Its robustness was confirmed by the analysis of an experimental feed containing Sudan I.

Keywords: feed; Sudan dyes; azo dyes; illegal dyes; LC-MS/MS

References

  • 1. Center for Food Safety, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China: http://www.cfs.gov.hk Accessed on 2017.02.13.Google Scholar

  • 2. Chen D., Li X., Tao Y., Pan Y., Wu Q., Liu Z., Peng D., Wang X., Huang L., Wang Y., Yuan Z.: Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ultrasoundassisted extraction method for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes and their metabolites in the edible tissues and eggs of food producing animals. J Chromatogr B 2013, 939, 45-50.Google Scholar

  • 3. Commission Regulation (EC) No 669/2009 of 24 July 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the increased level of official controls on imports of certain feed and food of nonanimal origin and amending Decision 2006/504/EC. Official J., L 194, 11.Google Scholar

  • 4. Hoenicke K.: Detection of low amounts of Sudan dyes and other illegal dyes in food and oleoresins. Analytical artefact or crosscontamination? AOAC Europe Section - International Workshop “Foods to Dye for”, 7 November 2006.Google Scholar

  • 5. Hou X., Li Y., Wu G., Wang L., Hong M., Wu Y.: Determination of para red, Sudan dyes, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in animal feeds using UPLC. J Chromatogr Sci 2010, 48, 22-25.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 6. Hu X., Cai Q., Fan Y., Ye T., Cao Y., Guo C.: Molecularly imprinted polymer coated solid-phase microextraction fibers for determination of Sudan I-IV dyes in hot chilli powder and poultry feed samples. J Chromatogr A 2012, 1219, 39-46.Google Scholar

  • 7. IARC: Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to some aromatic azo compounds. Lyon 1975, 8, 41.Google Scholar

  • 8. Lian Y., Gao W., Zhou L., Wu N., Lu Q., Han W., Tie X.: Occurrence of Sudan I in paprika fruits caused by agricultural environmental contamination. J Agric Food Chem 2014, 62, 4072-4076.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 9. Liu R., Hei W., He P., Li Z.: Simultaneous determination of fifteen illegal dyes in animal feeds and poultry products by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 2011, 879, 2416-2422.Google Scholar

  • 10. Matuszewski B.K., Constanzer M.L., Chavez-Eng C.M.: Matrix effect in quantitative LC/MS/MS analyses of biological fluids: a method for determination of finasteride in human plasma at picogram per milliliter concentrations. Anal Chem 1998, 70, 882-889.Google Scholar

  • 11. Piatkowska M., Olejnik M., Jedziniak P., Zmudzki J: The transfer of a genotoxic and carcinogenic azo-dye Sudan I to eggs after feeding of laying hens with contaminated feed. Eurotox, 13-16 September 2015, Porto, Portugal.Google Scholar

  • 12. Thompson M., Ellision S.L.R., Wood R.: The international harmonized protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical chemistry laboratories. Pure Appl Chem 2006, 78, 145-196.Google Scholar

  • 13. Thompson M.: Test for ‘sufficient homogeneity’ in a reference material. 2008, Available on 2015.04.29.: http://www.rsc.org/images/homogeneity-test-technical-brief-17A_tcm18-214886.pdf.Google Scholar

  • 14. Xu H., Heinze T.M., Paine D.D., Cerniglia C.E., Chen H.: Sudan azo dyes and Para Red degradation by prevalent bacteria of the human gastrointestinal tract. Anaerobe 2010, 16, 114-119.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2017-09-19

Published in Print: 2017-09-26


Citation Information: Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 299–305, ISSN (Online) 2450-8608, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jvetres-2017-0040.

Export Citation

© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in