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Offizielles Organ der Deutschen Vereinten Gesellschaft für Klinische Chemie und Laboratoriumsmedizin e.V. (DGKL) und affiliiert mit der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Laboratoriumsmedizin und Klinische Chemie (ÖGLMKC)

Editor-in-Chief: Schuff-Werner, Peter

Editorial Board Member: Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz / Bidlingmaier, Martin / Karsten, Conrad / Fraunberger, Peter / Ghebremedhin, Beniam / Kiehntopf, Michael / Klein, Hanns-Georg / Klouche, Mariam / Kohse, Klaus P. / Kratzsch, Jürgen / Luppa, Peter B. / März, Winfried / Nebe, Carl Thomas / Orth, Matthias / Ruf, Andreas / Steimer, Werner / Stieber, Petra / Weber, Bernard / Wieland, Eberhard / Sack, Ulrich / Tumani, Hayrettin / Zettl, Uwe K.

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Maternal thrombophilia and obstetric complications / Mütterliche Thrombophilie und geburtshilfliche Komplikationen

E. Lindhoff-Last

Citation Information: LaboratoriumsMedizin. Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 34–41, ISSN (Print) 0342-3026, DOI: 10.1515/LabMed.2004.009, June 2005

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Women with thrombophilic defects have been shown to be at increased risk, not only of pregnancy associated thromboembolism but also of other vascular complications of pregnancy, including preeclampsia and fetal loss. First trimester fetal loss is associated with factor V Leiden mutation, activated protein C resistance without factor V Leiden mutation and prothrombin G20210A mutation. Late nonrecurrent fetal loss is associated with factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin mutation and protein S deficiency. Concerning acquired thrombophilia, recurrent fetal loss is a well-documented finding in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Associations between thrombophilia polymorphisms and an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction have been discussed in small series of cases but could not be confirmed in large scale studies. Frequencies for anticardiolipin antibodies or lupus anticoagulants and antinuclear antibodies were significantly higher in women with infants small for gestational age compared to controls. Concerning preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and thrombophilia, a number of studies have examined these relationships with conflicting results. For factor V Leiden, MTHFR C677T and prothrombin mutation, no association with preeclampsia was observed, when severe cases were excluded. If studies were restricted to those of severe preeclampsia, an association with the factor V Leiden mutation was apparent and, to a lesser extent, with the MTHFR-mutation. For antithrombotic therapy, it was shown that in women with antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss, unfractionated heparin plus lowdose aspirin results in significantly better gestational outcome than lowdose aspirin alone. Concerning therapy of women with inherited thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, only small, uncontrolled studies are available, demonstrating improved pregnancy outcome when low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is used for treatment. In conclusion, heritable thrombophilia and the antiphospholipid-syndrome are major causes of fetal loss after exclusion of other underlying pathologies like chromosomal abnormalities, and screening should be recommended. LMWH with or without aspirin may be used for treatment. There is little value in antenatal screening for prothrombotic polymorphisms to predict the development of small for gestational age infants, preeclampsia or gestational hypertension.

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