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Journal of Laboratory Medicine

Official Journal of the German Society of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Schuff-Werner, Peter

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Volume 40, Issue 4

Issues

Flow cytometry as an important tool in the diagnosis of immunodeficiencies demonstrated in a patient with ataxia-telangiectasia

Alessandro De Stefano
  • Corresponding author
  • Institute for Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany
  • Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Viale Oxford 81, Roma
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/ Andreas Boldt / Lydia Schmiedel / Ulrich Sack / Karim Kentouche
Published Online: 2016-07-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/labmed-2016-0018

Abstract

Background:

Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare hereditary genetic disease caused by one of more than 500 mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM). AT is characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectasia of blood vessels, immunodeficiency with frequent lung infections, susceptibility to cancer, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation. A correct immunophenotyping of lymphocytes is necessary to identify the cause of the immunodeficiency.

Methods:

We evaluated a patient (female, 15 years) with AT by estimation of antibody titers, characterization of peripheral B- and T-cell subsets and investigation of proliferation response of B- and T-cells undergoing specific stimulation with PHA, CD3/CD28, and R848/CD40L. A healthy volunteer was used as a control.

Results:

The patient showed a heterozygous mutation in the ATM gene (c.5932G>T[p.E1978X]/c.7788+3A>G). Interestingly, despite a very low level of class-switched memory B-cells normal levels of serum immunoglobulins and antibody titers to viral and bacterial antigens could be observed. Furthermore, the analysis revealed an increase in total numbers of T-cells, caused by an extraordinarily high amount of γ/δ T-cells (CD3+CD4–CD8) (>75% of T-cells). Remaining CD4+/CD8+T-cells were decreased, naïve cells and recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) were strongly deficient. Subsequently, the proliferation activity of T-cells was strongly impaired, in contrast to normal B-cell proliferation both compared to the healthy control.

Conclusions:

Initial lymphocyte immunophenotyping suggested a defect in T- and B-cell differentiation, but normal humoral antibody titers and B-cell proliferation were inconsistent with this suspicion. Therefore, the results revealed an underlying T-cell defect and low levels of class-switched B-cells results from the lacking assistance from T-cells.

Keywords: B-cells; flow cytometry; T-cells

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About the article

Corresponding author: Dr. Alessandro De Stefano, Institute for Clinical Immunology, Johannisallee 30, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; and Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Viale Oxford 81, Roma, Tel.: +39 340 6695671

aAlessandro De Stefano and Andreas Boldt contributed equally to this work.


Received: 2016-02-11

Accepted: 2016-06-17

Published Online: 2016-07-27

Published in Print: 2016-08-01


Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in thestudy design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretationof data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision tosubmit the report for publication.


Citation Information: LaboratoriumsMedizin, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 255–261, ISSN (Online) 1439-0477, ISSN (Print) 0342-3026, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/labmed-2016-0018.

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