Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Language and Cognition

An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language and Cognitive Science

Ed. by Casasanto, Daniel / Coulson, Seana / Evans, Vyvyan / Hart, Christopher / Kemmerer, David / Michaelis, Laura / Sinha, Chris

More options …

The origins of duality of patterning in artificial whistled languages

Tessa Verhoef,
Published Online: 2012-11-06 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/langcog-2012-0019


In human speech, a finite set of basic sounds is combined into a (potentially) unlimited set of well-formed morphemes. Hockett (1960) placed this phenomenon under the term ‘duality of patterning’ and included it as one of the basic design features of human language. Of the thirteen basic design features Hockett proposed, duality of patterning is the least studied and it is still unclear how it evolved in language. Recent work shedding light on this is summarized in this paper and experimental data is presented. This data shows that combinatorial structure can emerge in an artificial whistled language through cultural transmission as an adaptation to human cognitive biases and learning. In this work the method of experimental iterated learning (Kirby et al. 2008) is used, in which a participant is trained on the reproductions of the utterances the previous participant learned. Participants learn and recall a system of sounds that are produced with a slide whistle. Transmission from participant to participant causes the whistle systems to change and become more learnable and more structured. These findings follow from qualitative observations, quantitative measures and a follow-up experiment that tests how well participants can learn the emerged whistled languages by generalizing from a few examples.

Keywords: cultural evolution; combinatorial structure; language evolution; phonology

About the article

Published Online: 2012-11-06

Published in Print: 2012-11-12

Citation Information: Language and Cognition, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 357–380, ISSN (Online) 1866-9859, ISSN (Print) 1866-9808, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/langcog-2012-0019.

Export Citation

©[2012] by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in