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Lexicographica

International Annual for Lexicography / Revue Internationale de Lexicographie / Internationales Jahrbuch für Lexikographie

Ed. by Gouws, Rufus Hjalmar / Heid, Ulrich / Herbst, Thomas / Lobenstein-Reichmann, Anja / Schierholz, Stefan J. / Schweickard, Wolfgang

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1865-9403
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Volume 33, Issue 2017

Issues

Monofunctional and polyfunctional information tools with an operative function

Heidi Agerbo
Published Online: 2018-08-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/lex-2017-0017

Abstract

Though a vast amount of dictionary analyses have been produced over the years, hardly any of these have mentioned the operative function, which has been overlooked in most lexicographical literature. With short analyses of 12 existing dictionaries ranging from the 18th century to the 21st century, this article shows that many dictionaries have indeed been produced to satisfy operative needs. Based on this result, it is clear that the operative function deserves a place in lexicographical theory. An interesting finding that came out of these analyses was that especially dictionaries from the 18th to the early 20th centuries (the old dictionaries) were written to accommodate several types of information needs that their users would come across in the real world, including operative needs, whereas the focus of most contemporary dictionaries is to satisfy linguistic information needs. This is an interesting change in focus, which this article criticises. Based on the above-mentioned analyses, a number of questions are raised to guide future research into the operative function.

Keywords: function theory, lexicographical information tools, monofunctional tools, operative function, polyfunctional tools

6 Bibliography

    6.1 Dictionaries and other reference tools

    • A Dictionary of Etiquette 1904 = Green, Walter C. (1904): A Dictionary of Etiquette. A Guide to polite usage for all social functions. New York: Brentano’s.Google Scholar

    • A Dictionary of Photography 1867 = Sutton, Thomas/Dawson, George (1867): A Dictionary of Photography. London: Sampson Low, son, & Marston.Google Scholar

    • Den Danske Netordbog 2017 = Bergenholtz, Henning (2017): Den Danske Netordbog. Odense: ordbogen.com.Google Scholar

    • Dictionary of Agriculture 1990 = Russell, Jane (1990) Dictionary of Agriculture. London: A & C Black Publishers.Google Scholar

    • Dictionary of Agriculture 1998 = Stephen, Alan (1998) Dictionary of Agriculture. The Second Edition. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.Google Scholar

    • Dictionary of contemporary photography 1974 = Stroebel, Leslie D./ Todd, Hollis N. (1974): Dictionary of contemporary photography. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Morgan &​ Morgan.Google Scholar

    • Dictionary of gardening, botany, and agriculture 1834 = Miller, Philip (1834): Dictionary of gardening, botany, and agriculture. London: Printed for the author and sold by John and Francis Rivington.Google Scholar

    • Dictionary of International Trade 2008 = Hinkelman, Edward G. (2008): Dictionary of International Trade. The eighth edition. USA: World Trade Press.Google Scholar

    • DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. <http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/dictionary.pdf> (accessed 23. 03. 2017).

    • Ejendomsordbog 2011 = Kruse, Liselotte/Leroyer, Patrick (2011). Ejendomsordbog Fransk / Dansk – DK & France. Odense: ordbogen.com.Google Scholar

    • Elsevier’s Dictionary of Horticultural and Agricultural Plant Production 1990 = Stadhouders, P. J. (1990). Elsevier’s Dictionary of Horticultural and Agricultural Plant Production. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar

    • Food and Fitness: a Dictionary of Diet and Exercise 1997 = Kent, Michael (1997): Food and Fitness: a Dictionary of Diet and Exercise. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

    • International dictionary of food and cooking 1998 = Sinclair, Charles Gordon (1998): International dictionary of food and cooking. Teddington: Peter Collin Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar

    • Landbrugs-Ordbog: Handbook for den praktiske Landmand 1919 = Mygdal-Madsen, Thomas (1919): Landbrugs-Ordbog: Handbook for den praktiske Landmand. The Second Edition. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel Nordisk Forlag.Google Scholar

    • Landbrugs-Ordbog for den praktiske Landmand 1877–83 = Møller-Holst, Erhard (1877–83): Landbrugs-Ordbog for den praktiske Landmand. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel og T. H. Lind.Google Scholar

    • Military Dictionary 1864 = Scott, Henry Lee (1864): Military Dictionary: Comprising technical definitions; information on raising and keeping troops; actual service, including makeshifts and improved materiel; and law, government, regulation, and administration relating to land forces. London: Trübner & Co.Google Scholar

    • Oxford British & World Dictionaries. <https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/> (accessed 23. 03. 2017).

    • Oxford Dictionary of Economics 2009 = Black, John/Hashimzade, Nigar/Myles, Gareth (2009): Oxford Dictionary of Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

    • Pocket garden dictionary and catalogue of everything pertaining to horticulture 1894 = Manda, W. Albert (1894): Pocket garden dictionary and catalogue of everything pertaining to horticulture. South Orange, N. J.: W. A. Manda.Google Scholar

    • Pschyrembel Wörterbuch Pflege 2003 = Wied, Susanne/Warmbrunn, Angelika (2003): Pschyrembel Wörterbuch Pflege. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar

    • Takt og Tone. Hvordan vi omgaas 1918 = Gad, Emma (1918): Takt og Tone. Hvordan vi omgaas. København: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.Google Scholar

    • The dictionary of photography for the amateur and professional photographer 1902 = Wall, Edward J./ Bolas, Thomas (1902): The dictionary of photography for the amateur and professional photographer. London: Hazell, Watson & Viney, ld.Google Scholar

    • The Garden Dictionary: An Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture Garden Management and Landscape Design 1936 = Taylor, Norman (1936): The Garden Dictionary: An Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture Garden Management and Landscape Design. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar

    • The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening, a Practical and Scientific Encyclopædia of Horticulture for Gardeners and Botanists 1884–88 = Nicholson, George/Garrett, John/Trail, James William Helenus (1884–88): The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening, a Practical and Scientific Encyclopædia of Horticulture for Gardeners and Botanists, Vol. 1–4. London: L. Upcott Gill.Google Scholar

    • The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics 2008 = Blume, Lawrence E./Durlauf, Steven N. (2008). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. The second edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

    • The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 1992 = Huxley, Anthony/Griffiths, Mark/Levy, Margot (1992): The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar

    • The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U. S. Military 2001 = The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U. S. Military (2001). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

    • The Phoenix Dictionary of Games: Outdoor, Covered Court and Gymnasium, Indoor. How to play 458 games 1952 = Pick, John Barclay (1952): The Phoenix Dictionary of Games: Outdoor, Covered Court and Gymnasium, Indoor. How to play 458 games. London: Phoenix House.Google Scholar

    • The Sportsman’s Dictionary; or, the Gentleman’s Companion: for Town and Country 1778 = The Sportsman’s Dictionary; or, the Gentleman’s Companion: for Town and Country (1778). London: Printed for G.G. J. & J. Robinson.Google Scholar

    • The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce 1774 = Postlethwayt, Malachy (1774): The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce. The Fourth Edition. London: Printed for W. Strahan et al.Google Scholar

    • The Visual Dictionary of Photography 2009 = Präkel, David (2009): The Visual Dictionary of Photography. Lausanne: AVA Publishing.Google Scholar

    6.2 Other literature

    • Agerbo, Heidi (2015): How to Describe Sports Terms in Information Tools for Laymen. Estudios de Lexicografia, 137–160.Google Scholar

    • Agerbo, Heidi (2016): The incorporation of specialised data in lexicographical meaning explanations: A discussion based on sports and fitness terms. Lexikos 26, 1–35.Google Scholar

    • Albrecht, Lone (1995): Textual analysis and the production of text. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.Google Scholar

    • Benner, Patricia (1997): Fra novice til ekspert – mesterlighed og styrke i klinisk sygeplejepraksis. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar

    • Bergenholtz, Henning/Bothma, Theo J.D./Gouws, Rufus H. (2015): Phases and Steps in the Access to Data in Information Tools. Lexikos 25, 1–30.Google Scholar

    • Bergenholtz, Henning/Tarp, Sven (2003): Two Opposing Theories: On H. E. Wiegand’s Recent Discovery of Lexicographic Functions. Hermes. Journal of Language and Communication in Business 31, 171–196.Google Scholar

    • Fernández, Eva Samaniego/de Alba, Beatriz Pérez Cabello (2011): Conclusions: Ten key issues in e-lexicography for the future. In Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro/Bergenholtz, Henning (eds.): e-Lexicography: The Internet, Digital Initiatives and Lexicography. London: Bloomsbury, 305–311.Google Scholar

    • Gallardo, Ángel Rodríguez (2013): The function theory and its application on manuals of economics. Hermes. Journal of Language and Communication in Business 50, 83–95.Google Scholar

    • Groenewegen, Peter (2004–2013): Postlethwayt, Malachy (1707–1767). In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Online edition January 2013: <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22599> (accessed 17 March 2017).Google Scholar

    • Hausmann, Franz Josef (1977): Einführung in die Benutzung der neufranzösischen Wörterbücher. Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar

    • Helder, Bodil (2011): Textual Analysis: An Approach to Analysing Professional Texts. Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.Google Scholar

    • Leroyer, Patrick (2013): New proposals for the design of integrated online wine industry dictionaries. Lexikos 23, 209–227.Google Scholar

    • Leroyer, Patrick/Kruse, Liselotte (2012): Ejendomsordbogen fransk/dansk: ny integreret e-ordbog. Nordiske Studier i Leksikografi 11, 405–417.Google Scholar

    • Paris, Cécile/Scott, Donia (1994): Stylistic variation in multilingual instructions. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Natural Language Generation. Association for Computational Linguistics, 45–52.Google Scholar

    • Tarp, Sven (2007): Lexicography in the information age. Lexikos 17, 170–179.Google Scholar

    • Tarp, Sven (2008): Lexicography in the borderland between knowledge and non-knowledge. Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar

    • Tarp, Sven (2009): The epistemology of lexicography: an answer to Robert Lew. Przegląd Humanistyczny. Pedagogika-Politologia-Filologia 2, 259–271.Google Scholar

    • Tarp, Sven/Bothma, Theo J.D. (2013): An alternative approach to Enlightenment age lexicography: The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce. Lexicographica 29, 222–284.Google Scholar

6.1 Dictionaries and other reference tools

  • A Dictionary of Etiquette 1904 = Green, Walter C. (1904): A Dictionary of Etiquette. A Guide to polite usage for all social functions. New York: Brentano’s.Google Scholar

  • A Dictionary of Photography 1867 = Sutton, Thomas/Dawson, George (1867): A Dictionary of Photography. London: Sampson Low, son, & Marston.Google Scholar

  • Den Danske Netordbog 2017 = Bergenholtz, Henning (2017): Den Danske Netordbog. Odense: ordbogen.com.Google Scholar

  • Dictionary of Agriculture 1990 = Russell, Jane (1990) Dictionary of Agriculture. London: A & C Black Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Dictionary of Agriculture 1998 = Stephen, Alan (1998) Dictionary of Agriculture. The Second Edition. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Dictionary of contemporary photography 1974 = Stroebel, Leslie D./ Todd, Hollis N. (1974): Dictionary of contemporary photography. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Morgan &​ Morgan.Google Scholar

  • Dictionary of gardening, botany, and agriculture 1834 = Miller, Philip (1834): Dictionary of gardening, botany, and agriculture. London: Printed for the author and sold by John and Francis Rivington.Google Scholar

  • Dictionary of International Trade 2008 = Hinkelman, Edward G. (2008): Dictionary of International Trade. The eighth edition. USA: World Trade Press.Google Scholar

  • DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. <http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/dictionary.pdf> (accessed 23. 03. 2017).

  • Ejendomsordbog 2011 = Kruse, Liselotte/Leroyer, Patrick (2011). Ejendomsordbog Fransk / Dansk – DK & France. Odense: ordbogen.com.Google Scholar

  • Elsevier’s Dictionary of Horticultural and Agricultural Plant Production 1990 = Stadhouders, P. J. (1990). Elsevier’s Dictionary of Horticultural and Agricultural Plant Production. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar

  • Food and Fitness: a Dictionary of Diet and Exercise 1997 = Kent, Michael (1997): Food and Fitness: a Dictionary of Diet and Exercise. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • International dictionary of food and cooking 1998 = Sinclair, Charles Gordon (1998): International dictionary of food and cooking. Teddington: Peter Collin Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar

  • Landbrugs-Ordbog: Handbook for den praktiske Landmand 1919 = Mygdal-Madsen, Thomas (1919): Landbrugs-Ordbog: Handbook for den praktiske Landmand. The Second Edition. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel Nordisk Forlag.Google Scholar

  • Landbrugs-Ordbog for den praktiske Landmand 1877–83 = Møller-Holst, Erhard (1877–83): Landbrugs-Ordbog for den praktiske Landmand. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel og T. H. Lind.Google Scholar

  • Military Dictionary 1864 = Scott, Henry Lee (1864): Military Dictionary: Comprising technical definitions; information on raising and keeping troops; actual service, including makeshifts and improved materiel; and law, government, regulation, and administration relating to land forces. London: Trübner & Co.Google Scholar

  • Oxford British & World Dictionaries. <https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/> (accessed 23. 03. 2017).

  • Oxford Dictionary of Economics 2009 = Black, John/Hashimzade, Nigar/Myles, Gareth (2009): Oxford Dictionary of Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Pocket garden dictionary and catalogue of everything pertaining to horticulture 1894 = Manda, W. Albert (1894): Pocket garden dictionary and catalogue of everything pertaining to horticulture. South Orange, N. J.: W. A. Manda.Google Scholar

  • Pschyrembel Wörterbuch Pflege 2003 = Wied, Susanne/Warmbrunn, Angelika (2003): Pschyrembel Wörterbuch Pflege. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Takt og Tone. Hvordan vi omgaas 1918 = Gad, Emma (1918): Takt og Tone. Hvordan vi omgaas. København: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.Google Scholar

  • The dictionary of photography for the amateur and professional photographer 1902 = Wall, Edward J./ Bolas, Thomas (1902): The dictionary of photography for the amateur and professional photographer. London: Hazell, Watson & Viney, ld.Google Scholar

  • The Garden Dictionary: An Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture Garden Management and Landscape Design 1936 = Taylor, Norman (1936): The Garden Dictionary: An Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture Garden Management and Landscape Design. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar

  • The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening, a Practical and Scientific Encyclopædia of Horticulture for Gardeners and Botanists 1884–88 = Nicholson, George/Garrett, John/Trail, James William Helenus (1884–88): The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening, a Practical and Scientific Encyclopædia of Horticulture for Gardeners and Botanists, Vol. 1–4. London: L. Upcott Gill.Google Scholar

  • The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics 2008 = Blume, Lawrence E./Durlauf, Steven N. (2008). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. The second edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

  • The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 1992 = Huxley, Anthony/Griffiths, Mark/Levy, Margot (1992): The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar

  • The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U. S. Military 2001 = The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U. S. Military (2001). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • The Phoenix Dictionary of Games: Outdoor, Covered Court and Gymnasium, Indoor. How to play 458 games 1952 = Pick, John Barclay (1952): The Phoenix Dictionary of Games: Outdoor, Covered Court and Gymnasium, Indoor. How to play 458 games. London: Phoenix House.Google Scholar

  • The Sportsman’s Dictionary; or, the Gentleman’s Companion: for Town and Country 1778 = The Sportsman’s Dictionary; or, the Gentleman’s Companion: for Town and Country (1778). London: Printed for G.G. J. & J. Robinson.Google Scholar

  • The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce 1774 = Postlethwayt, Malachy (1774): The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce. The Fourth Edition. London: Printed for W. Strahan et al.Google Scholar

  • The Visual Dictionary of Photography 2009 = Präkel, David (2009): The Visual Dictionary of Photography. Lausanne: AVA Publishing.Google Scholar

6.2 Other literature

  • Agerbo, Heidi (2015): How to Describe Sports Terms in Information Tools for Laymen. Estudios de Lexicografia, 137–160.Google Scholar

  • Agerbo, Heidi (2016): The incorporation of specialised data in lexicographical meaning explanations: A discussion based on sports and fitness terms. Lexikos 26, 1–35.Google Scholar

  • Albrecht, Lone (1995): Textual analysis and the production of text. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.Google Scholar

  • Benner, Patricia (1997): Fra novice til ekspert – mesterlighed og styrke i klinisk sygeplejepraksis. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar

  • Bergenholtz, Henning/Bothma, Theo J.D./Gouws, Rufus H. (2015): Phases and Steps in the Access to Data in Information Tools. Lexikos 25, 1–30.Google Scholar

  • Bergenholtz, Henning/Tarp, Sven (2003): Two Opposing Theories: On H. E. Wiegand’s Recent Discovery of Lexicographic Functions. Hermes. Journal of Language and Communication in Business 31, 171–196.Google Scholar

  • Fernández, Eva Samaniego/de Alba, Beatriz Pérez Cabello (2011): Conclusions: Ten key issues in e-lexicography for the future. In Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro/Bergenholtz, Henning (eds.): e-Lexicography: The Internet, Digital Initiatives and Lexicography. London: Bloomsbury, 305–311.Google Scholar

  • Gallardo, Ángel Rodríguez (2013): The function theory and its application on manuals of economics. Hermes. Journal of Language and Communication in Business 50, 83–95.Google Scholar

  • Groenewegen, Peter (2004–2013): Postlethwayt, Malachy (1707–1767). In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Online edition January 2013: <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22599> (accessed 17 March 2017).Google Scholar

  • Hausmann, Franz Josef (1977): Einführung in die Benutzung der neufranzösischen Wörterbücher. Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar

  • Helder, Bodil (2011): Textual Analysis: An Approach to Analysing Professional Texts. Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.Google Scholar

  • Leroyer, Patrick (2013): New proposals for the design of integrated online wine industry dictionaries. Lexikos 23, 209–227.Google Scholar

  • Leroyer, Patrick/Kruse, Liselotte (2012): Ejendomsordbogen fransk/dansk: ny integreret e-ordbog. Nordiske Studier i Leksikografi 11, 405–417.Google Scholar

  • Paris, Cécile/Scott, Donia (1994): Stylistic variation in multilingual instructions. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Natural Language Generation. Association for Computational Linguistics, 45–52.Google Scholar

  • Tarp, Sven (2007): Lexicography in the information age. Lexikos 17, 170–179.Google Scholar

  • Tarp, Sven (2008): Lexicography in the borderland between knowledge and non-knowledge. Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar

  • Tarp, Sven (2009): The epistemology of lexicography: an answer to Robert Lew. Przegląd Humanistyczny. Pedagogika-Politologia-Filologia 2, 259–271.Google Scholar

  • Tarp, Sven/Bothma, Theo J.D. (2013): An alternative approach to Enlightenment age lexicography: The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce. Lexicographica 29, 222–284.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2018-08-28


Citation Information: Lexicographica Lexi., Volume 33, Issue 2017, Pages 361–390, ISSN (Online) 1865-9403, ISSN (Print) 0175-6206, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/lex-2017-0017.

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