Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Linguaculture

The Journal of Linguaculture Centre for (Inter)cultural and (Inter)lingual Research, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi

2 Issues per year

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2285-9403
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Embedded Inversion Worldwide

Daniela Kolbe / Andrea Sand
Published Online: 2013-02-08 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10318-012-0002-x

Abstract

The inversion of (auxiliary) verb and subject in subordinate interrogative clauses (embedded inversion, or EI) is a feature that occurs in many non-standard varieties of English, especially in varieties that have developed in language contact situations, such as Irish English, East African English or Indian English. Various sources of origin have been proposed in previous research, among them substrate influence or transfer errors of learners in language contact situation. This paper introduces the phenomenon in question and provides an overview of previous research. Drawing on data of the International Corpus of English (ICE), it then presents the results of probabilistic statistic analyses (logistic regression) in order to identify which external and internal factors are strongest in elciting the inverted word order.

Keywords : syntax; non-standard syntax; worldwide varieties of English; reported speech; indirect questions; inversion

  • Biber, Douglas et al. (eds.). 1999. Longman Grammar of Spoken And Written English. London: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Braidi, Susan. M. 1999. The Acquisition of Second-Language Syntax. London: Arnold.Google Scholar

  • Catford, J. C. 1957. The Linguistic Survey of Scotland. Orbis 6:105-121.Google Scholar

  • Denison, David. 1998. 3. Syntax. In Suzanne Romaine (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language, Vol. IV: 1776-1997, 92-329. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar

  • Dulay, Heidi & Marina Burt. 1974. Natural Sequences in Child Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning 24:253-278.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Filppula, Markku. 2000. Inversion in Embedded Questions in Some Regional Varieties of English. In Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero et al. (eds.), Generative Theory And CorpusStudies: A Dialogue from 10 ICEHL, 439-453. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Filppula, Markku. 2004. Irish English. Morphology and Syntax. In Bernd Kortmann et al. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 2: Morphology and Syntax, 73-101. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Fludernik, Monika. 1993. The Fictions of Language and the Languages of Fiction: The Linguistic Representation of Speech and Consciousness. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Harris, John. 1993. The Grammar of Irish English. In Leslie Milroy & James Milroy (eds.), Real English: The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles, 139-186. London: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Henry, Alison. 1995. Belfast English And Standard English, New York & Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar

  • Hilbert, Michaela. 2008. Interrogative Inversion in Varieties of English: A Case of Angloversals? Paper presented at ISLE 1, Freiburg, 8 October 2008.Google Scholar

  • Huddleston, Rodney & Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of theEnglish Language. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar

  • Kolbe, Daniela. 2001. Embedded Inversion in the North of the British Isles, unpubl. M.A. thesis, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg.Google Scholar

  • Kolbe, Daniela. 2008. Complement Clauses in British Englishes, unpubl. Ph.D thesis, Universität Trier.Google Scholar

  • McDavid, Virginia Glenn & William Card. 1972. Problem Areas in Grammar. In A. L. Davis (ed.), Culture, Class and Language Variety: A Resource Book for Teachers, 89-132. Chicago: Center for American English, Illinois Institue of Technology.Google Scholar

  • Menard, Scott. 2002. Applied Logistic Regression Analysis. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, London & New Delhi: SAGE.Google Scholar

  • Miller, Jim. 1993. The Grammar of Scottish English. In James Milroy & Leslie Milroy (eds.), Real English: The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles, 99-138. London & New York: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Miller, Jim & Regina Weinert. 1998. Spontaneous Spoken Language: Syntax andDiscourse. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar

  • Ohlander, Sölve. 1986. Question-Orientation Versus Answer-Orientation in English Interrogative Clauses. In Dieter Kastovsky & Aleksander Szwedek (eds.), Linguisticsacross Historical and Geographical Boundaries, 963-982. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Pampel, Fred C. 2000. Logistic Regression: A Primer. Thousand Oaks, London & New Delhi: SAGE.Google Scholar

  • Parry, David. 1999. A Grammar and Glossary of the Conservative Anglo-Welsh Dialectsof Rural Wales. Sheffield: The National Centre for English Cultural Tradition.Google Scholar

  • Penhallurick, Robert. 1991. The Anglo-Welsh Dialects of North Wales. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.Google Scholar

  • Platt, John T., Heidi Weber & Mian Lian Ho. 1984. The New Englishes. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Quirk, Randolph et al. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Sabban, Annette. 1982. Gälisch-Englischer Sprachkontakt: Zur Variabilität desEnglischen im gälischsprachigen Gebiet Schottlands. Eine empirische Studie. Heidelberg: Groos.Google Scholar

  • Sand, Andrea. 1999. Linguistic Variation in Jamaica: A Corpus-Based Study of Radioand Newspaper Usage. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar

  • Sand, Andrea. 2005. Angloversals? Morphosyntactic Parallels in Contact Varieties of English, unpubl. Habilitationsschrift, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg.Google Scholar

  • Schmied, Josef. 2004. East African English (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania): Morphology and Syntax. In Bernd Kortmann et al. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English,Vol. 2: Morphology and Syntax, 918-930. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Schmied, Josef. 2008. East African English (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania): Morphology and Syntax. In Rajend Meshtrie (ed.), Varieties of English, Vol. 4: Africa, South andSoutheast Asia, 451-471. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Simo Bobda, Augustin. 1998. The Indigenization of English in Cameroon and NewEnglishisms. Essen: LAUD.Google Scholar

  • Sridhar, S. N. 1992. The Ecology of Bilingual Competence: Language Interaction in the Syntax of Indigenized Varieties of English. World Englishes 11:141-150.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sridhar, S. N. 1996. Toward a Syntax of South Asian English. In Robert J. Baumgardner (ed.), South Asian English: Structure, Use and Users, 55-69. Urbana, IL: U of Illinois P.Google Scholar

  • Tay, Mary. 1982. The Uses, Users and Features of Singapore English. In John Pride (ed.), New Englishes, 51-70. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar

  • Thomas, Alan R. 1997. The Welshness of Welsh English: A Survey Paper. In Hildegard L. C. Tristram (ed.), The Celtic Englishes, 55-85. Heidelberg: Winter. Google Scholar

About the article

This paper is a revised version of a paper presented at the first ISLE Conference at the University of Freiburg (Germany) in October 2008. We would like to thank the discussants of our paper and especially Michaela Hilbert for their valuable input.


Published Online: 2013-02-08

Published in Print: 2010-06-01


Citation Information: Linguaculture, ISSN (Online) 2067-9696, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10318-012-0002-x.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in